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T. , ?. @bullet, /. For, and .. , (b) K H =10 ?1 m/d, and (c) K H =1 m/d, and (d) time to achieve 100% of ground at T < ?10 ? C with respect to the freeze pipe spacing for different hydraulic conductivity values, p.144

. Ground-temperature, -10 ? C isotherm (black line), and water flow velocity (lower scale legend in m/d) after 15 months of freezing (spacing = 5 m, K H = 1 m/d) (close-up of the freezing surface), p.145