Propriétés physico-chimiques et modélisation du fonctionnement en colonne d'adsorbants minéraux sélectifs du Cs

Abstract : Following the nuclear disaster in Fukushima Dai-Ichi, thousands of tons of fresh water and seawater were used for cooling the reactors or contaminated as a result of groundwater seepage. Decontamination of these waters is complicated by the presence of other cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) naturally present in these waters. Decontamination process in columns packed was studied in this context with two types of mineral adsorbents: the TERMOXID 35 and the SORBMATECH® 202. The first one is a commercial adsorbent and consists of mixed ferrocyanide K/Ni impregnated over a solid matrix Zr(OH)4. The second one was synthesized in CEA and is composed of ferrocyanide K/Cu impregnated over a solid matrix SiO2. Both materials have shown a high efficiency for Cs decontamination in seawater with Kd,Cs of about 105 mL/g.Batch studies conducted in different solutions (pure water, fresh water and seawater) allowed determining sorption kinetics and ion exchange mechanisms responsible for the sorption of Cs+, taking into account competitive effects of the natural water cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+). Modelling of batchs was performed with the geochemical code CHESS considering competitive effects according to the Vanselow formalism and selectivity coefficients, developing a specific thermodynamic database. The performances of these materials were then tested in column. The operating parameters such as Darcy’s velocity and the H/D ratio were studied for a proper functioning of this process. The T35 has proven to be less efficient mainly because of the slow diffusion of Cs in the pores of the material. The S202 has proven to be a good candidate for the application of high flow rates. The breakthrough curves obtained in fresh water have been modelled with the reactive transport codes HYTEC and OPTIPUR using the CHESS thermodynamic database. This approach will eventually help to support the design of a decontamination unit by the operator.
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Caroline Michel. Propriétés physico-chimiques et modélisation du fonctionnement en colonne d'adsorbants minéraux sélectifs du Cs. Hydrologie. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ENMP0070⟩. ⟨tel-01311102⟩

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