Étude du vieillissement en milieu chloré de membranes fibres creuses en poly(fluorure de vinylidène) utilisées dans le traitement de l'eau

Abstract : The cleaning processes, especially the use of chlorine solutions, may cause the untimely degradation of the water filtration membranes. While the market for PVDF membrane-based treatment technologies is rapidly expending, only few works deal with the study of their ageing on a long-term basis. In this context, this project focuses on the study of the ageing of two PVDF filtration membranes. Samples are immersed in a sodium hypochlorite solution and the effect of the chlorine solution pH is investigated. The properties of the membranes are characterized throughout the study by tensile tests, hydrophilicity, hydraulic performances and porosity analysis. The evolution of properties is related to the chemical structure of the membranes at a molecular, a macromolecular and a supramolecular scale. Until now, this approach has never been used in the case of PVDF membranes under chlorine conditions. The size exclusion chromatography analyses revealed the most important modifications. The degradation occurs mainly by chain scissions of the PVDF and crosslinking phenomenon in lesser extent. The main modifications occurred at pH less than 10 proving the joint action of OH•, ClO• and Cl• radicals. The ageing of the PVDF membrane containing additives showed at the same time the PVDF degradation and the elimination of the additives. Whereas the properties of the additive-free PVDF membrane were preserved, the elimination of additives led to a modification of the porosity and an increased fouling. However, even if the PVDF degradation is proved, the using properties of the PVDF membranes remain acceptable taking into consideration extreme conditions of ageing studied.
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Jennifer Ravereau-Delattre. Étude du vieillissement en milieu chloré de membranes fibres creuses en poly(fluorure de vinylidène) utilisées dans le traitement de l'eau. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ENAM0009⟩. ⟨tel-01312201⟩

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