Évaluation des effets de site topographiques dans les pentes soumises à des sollicitations dynamiques par simulations numériques

Abstract : Earthquakes are known as destructive and murderous natural catastrophe. Particularly in the mountainous regions, the effects of earthquakes are still much aggravated due to the topographic site effects. The presence of a slope causes an amplification of the seismic signal, particularly in the vicinity of the crest. Numerous earthquakes in the past such as the 1909 Lambesc earthquake (Ms=6.2) which led to the destruction of the Rognes village (Bouches-du-Rhône, France), or more recently the 1999 Athens, Greece earthquake (Ms=5.9) which damaged the Adames city as well as the 1999 Chichi, Taiwan earthquake (MW=7.6), the 2001 El Salvador earthquake (MW=7.6) and the 2008 Sichuan earthquake (MW=7.9) responsible for numerous catastrophic landslides are representative examples. Post-seismic investigations demonstrated a significant contribution of topographic site effects on the human and material damage assessment.In order to improve the knowledge of this phenomenon, numerous numerical simulations were performed on the step-like slope models by using the FLAC 2D software (Itasca). The obtained results were analyzed by considering various criteria such as amplification factors, dimensions and area of amplification zones as well as spatial distribution of these zones inside the slope mass. The parametric analyses allow underlining the principal role of the dimensionless frequency, ratio of the slope height to the wavelength of the seismic signal, in the evaluation of topographic site effects. These results also show that the slope angle is the second important parameter, followed by the Poisson's ratio and the geometry of the crest and of the toe of slope.These numerical results allow pointing out empirical equations, called ANS, which can be used to estimate the topographic site effects according to different interpretation criteria. These formulas are suitable for seismic signals with a relatively narrow band of predominant frequencies. For other cases, the method concerning decomposition of seismic incident wave (MD) was developed in this work. This method is based on the decomposition of the complex multi-frequency seismic signal into multiple mono-frequency waves by using Fourier transform. The effect of the complex signal is then evaluated through a combination of the effects of elementary waves. The approaches developed in this work (ANS and MD) allow evaluating the topographic site effects, by taking into account geomorphologic and seismic parameters of the slope as well as the frequency content of the seismic signal, without recourse to numerical simulations.
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Hieu Toan Nguyen. Évaluation des effets de site topographiques dans les pentes soumises à des sollicitations dynamiques par simulations numériques. Géologie appliquée. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ENMP0074⟩. ⟨tel-01314423⟩

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