Etude d'un électrobrûleur industriel doté d'une torche à arc triphasée pour la valorisation énergétique de combustibles à faible pouvoir calorifique

Abstract : Energy production from renewable combustibles like biomass and organic wastes presents an increasing interest with the urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the depletion of conventional fossil energy resources. Meanwhile, standard industrial burners are not adequate for the energetic valorization of renewable poor LHV combustibles despite their low price and their abundance in nature. Electro-burners, with plasma assisted combustion technology, are a promising solution for this type of combustible. In this PhD dissertation is detailed the development of a 100 kW plasma torch working in air and embeddable in an industrial electro-burner. It consists firstly, in making possible an operation in oxidizing environment by reducing as much as possible the air erosion of the graphite electrodes. For this purpose, multiple solutions are tested such as sheathing with nitrogen and methane, aerodynamic control of air flow and injection of carbon black particles. The second challenge is the optimization of heat and mass transfers by improving the plasma flow and by choosing the appropriate materials for thermal insulation. Theoretically, a turbulent model of plasma flow is developed with the modeling of the electric arc column as a stationary source of heat and momentum. A multi-band radiation model and a reactional kinetic model are also integrated. The results show the important role of radiation, the limitation of the nitrogen sheathing and the potential of methane injection in reducing electrode erosion. They allowed also validating the design of the plasma torch before the tests. Experimentally, the new torch design is built and tested. It comes out that reducing the electrode erosion by carbon powder injection is not efficient to achieve a neutral environment around the electrodes whereas a control of the nearby air flow appears to be beneficial. Finally, tests of plasma assisted combustion of some biomasses are performed and analyzed.
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Sabri Takali. Etude d'un électrobrûleur industriel doté d'une torche à arc triphasée pour la valorisation énergétique de combustibles à faible pouvoir calorifique. Génie chimique. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ENMP0071⟩. ⟨tel-01315556⟩

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