Traitement du foisonnement filamenteux induit par Microthrix parvicella par ajout de sels métalliques : impact sur les boues activées

Abstract : Addition of metallic salts has been proposed to control the proliferation of Microthrix parvicella in low-loaded wastewater treatment plants (WWTP).The work presented in this document aimed at evaluating the efficiency of such treatment in the control of bulking events. The impact of aluminium addition on the activated sludge settling properties, on the process performance and on the microorganisms presents in the activated sludge, particularly it’s specificity for M. parvicella, was assessed.According to the survey performed on a sample of 370 low-loaded activated sludge WWTPs, settling problems remain a key issue for 30 % of WWTPs treating less than 250 000 p.e., and for 50 % of those treating more than 250 000 p.e.. In at least one case out of three, settling problems were induced by excessive development of filamentous bacteria. A high organic load was identified to be one of the factors favouring those dysfunctions. Metallic salts added to remove phosphorous from wastewater was also shown to reduce the occurrence of observed settling problems, given that iron salts are mostly utilised.Measurements performed on the semi-industrial pilot plant (1 500 p.e.) confirmed the efficiency of aluminium salt addition in controlling the settling properties, reducing sludge loss and foaming formation which could degrade the WWTP removal efficiency. The confrontation of the results obtained via process engineering tools (study of the pilot plant removal efficiencies, plant modelling), microbiology and molecular microbiology (microscopy, quantitative PCR, DGGE, molecular inventory) allowed a better understanding of the observed phenomena. The aluminium salt addition contributes to make M. parvicella less competitive than the other bacteria when the aluminium concentration is above 0.7 mmol (g MLVSS)-1 in mixed liquor. This growth limitation is concomitant to the formation of more compact aggregates, with better settling properties, the embedment of filamentous bacteria into the flocs and therefore their disappearance from the interstitial liquid. When the aluminium concentration in the mixed liquor is below 0.7 mmol (g MLVSS)-1, the foam formation is limited and the sludge volume index is stabilised thanks to coagulation phenomena which does not impact significantly the aggregates morphologies and M. parvicella’s relative abundance.Based upon these results, the mechanisms involved in the improvement of the settling conditions are similar to non-specific mechanisms of coagulation-flocculation.Modelling the observed behaviour, adding a biomass representing M. parvicella in available biokinetic models, would allow a better understanding of the competition between filamentous and flocculated bacteria.
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Nadège Durban. Traitement du foisonnement filamenteux induit par Microthrix parvicella par ajout de sels métalliques : impact sur les boues activées. Autre. AgroParisTech, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015AGPT0030⟩. ⟨tel-01316617⟩

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