Analyse des formes d’adaptation au risque dans la construction en zones inondables en région parisienne : ce pour quoi l’on décide de donner des gages et ce que l’on choisit d’ignorer

Abstract : This study is developed against a background of high estate pressure in the Ile-de-France region, of brownfield conversion and of increased urban densification. All these processes are leading to the land-use in floodrisk areas. The aim of this thesis is to analyse urbanisation process in floodrisk areas, with regard to the current transformations in urban design methods. Large urban development projects require the intervention of several stakeholders and significant expertise. Uncertainties in projects that are designed over ten, twenty or thirty years and the need to develop a progressive process have to be evaluated. Researchers and land-use stakeholders qualify this process of “urban project”. Our primary hypothesis was that the changes observed in urban project designs may challenge flood risk integration methods. Will the urban project stakeholders seize upon the risk integration in a different way using a more significant expertise and make risk management stakeholders play a part? Our analysis focus on two urban projects: les Ardoines in Vitry-sur-Seine and Parc-en-Seine in Villeneuve-le-Roi. Our study also integrates observation of other urban projects in the Greater Paris and in Germany. In our case studies in France, the risk is often analysed through the flood risk prevention plan. However, this will raise only marginally practices and urban forms related to prevention, protection and crisis management. Based on this concept it has been pro-posed that the application of the rule at the urban project scale is transformed into the construction of the ignorance process (Jouzel, Dedieu, 2013) concerning a global risk management, integrating all these actions. During the rule application, the advocacy coalitions (Sabatier, Jenkins-Smith, 1993) will find a common idea mainly focusing on ensuring the safety of goods and people and the hydraulic transparency. This expertise will be the most important piece to translate the rule in urban forms (stilts, raised ground floor, etc.) as a guarantee of good compliance with the rule. Construction of ignorance results in a lack of awareness of the impacts of development projects on the district and the city during flood periods. This process is partially filled in by a public development authority, which includes the two figures of the state, both protector and developer. They have for mission to develop and densify an area of three hundred hectares. The examples of German urban projects used in this thesis show a reversal of risk integration methods. The removal of any principle of prohibition of urbanization in flood-risk areas leads to the production of new rules in regard to urban forms (sealed buildings, elevated roads ...) and also the obligations relating to the warning and management crisis. In conclusion, our study has shown that once an urban project is completed, the in-habitants will be the ultimate witnesses to the segmentation of the flood risk management. Indeed, receiving information from risk exposure, does not integrate the implications of this exposure - that is to say the role it will have to play in case of flood. More communication would lead to raise the question of responsibilities of each party and would highlight that the risk remains despite protection tools
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Elodie Moulin. Analyse des formes d’adaptation au risque dans la construction en zones inondables en région parisienne : ce pour quoi l’on décide de donner des gages et ce que l’on choisit d’ignorer. Etudes de l'environnement. Université Paris-Est, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PESC1085⟩. ⟨tel-01317946⟩

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