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Modélisation numérique du comportement hydromécanique des milieux poreux fracturés : analyse des conditions de propagation des fractures

Abstract : Global warming effect related to CO2 emission has led to sequestration projects of this gas in reservoir formations. These formations can be crossed by faults and safety issue of storage requires the study of fault reactivation and propagation risk. This study goes through in-depth investigations of fracture propagation conditions under hydromechanical solicitations. This thesis aims at theoretical and numerical studies of these conditions and the numerical simulation of fracture propagation. Numerical modelling of thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in fractured porous media using Finite Element Method (FEM) allows the simulation of complex and nonlinear phenomena. Difficulties in integrating fluid mass exchange between fracture and surrounding matrix in the equations with FEM have been solved in recent works and our numerical simulations have been based on this progress. In a first step, we modelled transient flow subjected to a fluid injection and we studied the Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) at fracture tip in the framework of linear poroelasticity theory. If injection conditions are kept constant and the fracture does not evolve, the flow tends to a steady state. The SIF develops during transient phase to reach a limit value in the steady state. Modelling of transient flow is very time consuming and it is interesting to find a method to exploit the results of a calculation in steady state. Theoretical analysis and results of numerical simulations show that the SIF calculated at steady state can provide some bounds for fracture propagation under transient flow. In the framework of linear poroelasticity and Poiseuille flow in fractures, some semi-analytical expressions of SIF at steady state could be derived. For simple geometries, these approximate formulations are efficient to discuss fracture propagation conditions for typical and simple cases of fracture geometry and fluid injection conditions. In a second step, a Cohesive Zone/Fracture Model (CFM) was used to model fracture propagation on the basis of damage. This model, based on a modified Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, simulates interface damage under both mode I and II loads. An equivalence relation between parameters of CFM and Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics model (LEFM) was established on the basis of fracture propagation length under similar loads. This relationship allows the extension of theoretical equivalence between LEFM and CFM established for brittle materials and on the basis of energy criteria, for quasi-brittle and ductile materials. It has also shown that CFM can simulate specific phenomena such as propagation instabilities for mode I and II and fracture kinking under mode II. Finally, taking into account the fluid pressure in the fracture permitted to obtain a CFM coupled with hydraulic processes which has been implemented in a numerical finite element code to study fracture propagation under hydromechanical solicitations. Numerical simulations were performed to study the risk of fault reactivation and propagation in the context of CO2 injection in Paris Basin reservoir formation
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Van-Linh Nguyen. Modélisation numérique du comportement hydromécanique des milieux poreux fracturés : analyse des conditions de propagation des fractures. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris-Est, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PESC1165⟩. ⟨tel-01319015⟩

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