Modélisation de la ventilation naturelle en vue d'une conception optimisée d'ouvertures vitrées

Abstract : Natural ventilation is a passive solution to refresh and cool down the buildings whose performance is often limited by acoustic and visual constraints. This thesis aims to improve the design of glazed windows to integrate these multiple constraints. Thermo-aeraulic, acoustic and lighting models are integrated in a platform of building energy simulation to evaluate the performance of natural ventilation in office and residential buildings according to global comfort and energy consumption. The thesis contributes in particular to the development and the validation of thermo-aeraulic models from experiments and numeric simulations. A new technique of air change rate measurement by tracer gas is developed in laboratory conditions and then applied in an in-situ experimental campaign to characterize the airflow in cross and single-sided ventilation. The numeric simulations are conducted to analyze the deviation observed between the measures and correlations. With the help of CFD tool, the specific opening geometries of this case study (loggia, different window sizes) under different wind conditions allow to identify the application range of the correlations.Finally, building energy simulation integrating the developed models comparing different control modes are carried out for two case studies: office and residential buildings. Significant reductions of cooling potential are observed in a noisy environment. To provide a response to the constraints of external noise, prototypes of acoustic shutters are designed to ensure a good compromise between thermal and acoustic comfort. Indicators applicable to the design of glazed openings based on climatic parameters are also proposed.
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Shuqing Cui. Modélisation de la ventilation naturelle en vue d'une conception optimisée d'ouvertures vitrées. Génie des procédés. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ENMP0077⟩. ⟨tel-01321001⟩

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