Vers de nouveaux outils pour l’anticipation des besoins utilisateurs : apports méthodologiques pour l'ergonomie prospective

Abstract : Requirements analysis is the first step of the design process. It is also animportant source of innovation in companies, particularly when it is shared and fulfilled by themultidisciplinary design team. The prospection and anticipation of future needs are therefore animportant challenge for the development of new products adapted to their user. The goal of thisthesis is to optimize the anticipation of future needs in order to foster innovation. Ourassumptions include methodological and technological factors to improve the collaboration ofthe multidisciplinary team and the performance of requirements anticipation. Theseassumptions are operationalized through three different ways of running the Persona methodand tested in the context of three industrial projects. We show that a method combining severalreasoning modes adapted to the various professional backgrounds in the multidisciplinary team,the anticipation of needs is improved quantitatively and qualitatively (i.e. usefulness assessedby users). We also show that the technological support plays an important role in theeffectiveness of methods: a collaborative and playful technology such as an interactive tabletopcan increase the number of strategic ideas for the company (i.e. useful and technically feasible);an immersive and playful technology such as a virtual world can shape needs anticipation inaccordance with the project priorities (Techno-Centered or User-Centered). These results openmany opportunities for the methodological and technological evolution of front-end innovationphases towards the anticipation of future needs.
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Jessy Barre. Vers de nouveaux outils pour l’anticipation des besoins utilisateurs : apports méthodologiques pour l'ergonomie prospective. Eco-conception. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ENAM0023⟩. ⟨tel-01337613⟩

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