Etude de l’influence des hétérogénéités microstructurales sur la tenue en fatigue à grand nombre de cycles des alliages d’aluminium de fonderie

Abstract : This work treats the influence of the microstructural heterogeneities on the multiaxial high cycle fatigue (HCF) strength of cast aluminium alloys used in an automobile context. The characteristic microstructural heterogeneities present in this family of materials are the aluminium matrix (often characterised by the SDAS and/or the DAS and the precipitation hardening level), inclusions (silicon particles and intermetallics) and casting defects (oxide films and casting porosity).In order to clearly decouple these effects, three cast Al-Si alloys, obtained thank to different casting processes (gravity die casting and lost foam die casting) and associated with several heat treatments (T7 and Hot isostatic pressing-HIP), have been investigated. The HIP treatment is used in order to obtain a porosity free alloy. A vast experimental HCF campaign, including four loading modes (uniaxial (R=-1), torsion (R=-1), combined tension-torsion (R=-1) and equibiaxial tension (R=0.1)) has been undertaken. The following effects on the HCF behaviour have been characterised for the porosity free alloy as well as porosity containing alloys: (a) the effect of the multiaxiality (for the loading modes at R=-1), (b) the effect of the mean stress and (c) the effect of the biaxality (for equibiaxial tensile loads at R=0.1). The fatigue damage mechanisms have been studied in order to highlight the roles of the casting pores, the aluminium matrix and the inclusions on the fatigue damage mechanisms.Two analytical fatigue models are proposed. The first one concerns the effect of the loaded volume on the uniaxial fatigue strength of the porosity containing alloys using an approach to predict of the maximum pore size in a given volume. The second model, based on a probabilistic approach, takes into account the competition between the different observed damage mechanisms and leads to a Kitagawa-Takahashi type diagrams for different loading modes. It is shown that these analytical models result in good predictions for the three materials investigated and the four loading modes.A numerical study, presented in the last section, is related to the 3D finite element analysis of real pores. Real pore geometries are obtained thank to micro-tomography observations. The principal aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of predicting the fatigue strength at the macroscopic scale thanks to the local mechanical behaviour around critical pores.
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Viet Duc Le. Etude de l’influence des hétérogénéités microstructurales sur la tenue en fatigue à grand nombre de cycles des alliages d’aluminium de fonderie. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016ENAM0012⟩. ⟨tel-01345228⟩

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