Analysis and modeling of the radio channel for secret key generation

Abstract : Nowadays, the security of ubiquitous wireless communications becomes more and more a crucial requirement. Even though data is widely protected via symmetric ciphering keys, a well-known difficulty is the generation and distribution of such keys. In the recent years therefore, a set of works have addressed the exploitation of inherent characteristics of the fading propagation channel for security. In particular, secret keys could be generated from the wireless channel, considered as a shared source of randomness, available merely to a pair of communicating entities. ln the present dissertation, we are interested in the approach of secret key generation (SKG) from wireless channels, especially in relating the radio channel properties to the generated keys quality. We first develop a stochastic channel model, focusing on the security with respect to the eavesdropper side, which shows a residual channel memory weil beyond a few wavelengths distance (spatially nonstationary scenarios). Then, we analyze the channel degrees of freedom (DoF) and their impact on the SKG performance in different channel conditions, especially by considering more realistic channels in both outdoor and indoor environments (respectively through simulated ray tracing data and through measurements). The results show that, even for moderately wide band (such as standardized in IEEE 802.11), the sole frequency DOF or its association with the spatial DOF is often enough for generating long keys, provided an efficient quantization method of the complex channel coefficients is used.
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Taghrid Mazloum. Analysis and modeling of the radio channel for secret key generation. Networking and Internet Architecture [cs.NI]. Télécom ParisTech, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016ENST0012⟩. ⟨tel-01347204⟩

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