Le corridor ferroviaire méditerranéen : planification, politisation et territorialisation d'un projet d'aménagement

Abstract : The Mediterranean corridor stands at the meeting point of a Spanish railway project in the 1920s and a second project which has formed part of the Trans-European Networks of Transport since the 1990s. The subject is thus this coastal axis, including cities, activities and infrastructure. The bottom line is the idea that the Mediterranean corridor has to be placed in a territorial context that is plural. Indeed, it is both perennial, within the scope of the long-term timeline of the construction and planning of the Spanish territory, and evolving within the political temporality of the planning process and its successive stages. It also has an inherent multiscalar component due to the institutional process and to its impact on the territory. Our hypothesis is that in Spain the corridor involves an interaction with the political and economic questions, so that it cannot be simply considered as a transport project (yet not materialized by infrastructure), and should rather be tackled through its political dimension. Right at the meeting point of these stakes, we have chosen to use a territorial approach, contrary to the majority of works that have been dedicated to this subject. This territorial angle makes it possible to study the Mediterranean corridor through its spatial dimension, taking into account both the economic and political questions that shape the corridor in its territorial aspect and the various implications of the project on this territory at all scales. This thesis develops two main ideas. The first ambition of this work is to understand how this project, which began as a plan for infrastructure as part of a decision-making process regarding spatial planning, then became a powerful factor in the rearticulation of the roles of the different stakeholders and the reinterpretation of the paradigms of planning at all scales. We will then be able to investigate the dialectics between the various institutional levels on the one hand and between the various territorial scales (European, national, regional and local) on the other hand. The integration of the project within the territories can be performed through different forms of territorialisation, both material and immaterial, from the construction of railway equipment to the rearticulation of the roles of the stakeholders within a given territory. We therefore witness a double process of politisation of the local interests through the action of business associations at the regional level, and depolitisation of the debate about the corridor as the project reaches a European level. Three key outcomes emerged from this work based on a methodology relying mainly on interviews as well as the study of planning documentation and the manifestations of the Mediterranean corridor in the public debate. The first idea is that, given its plasticity, the corridor becomes indeed a political subject: it is both a project for infrastructure with evolving characteristics and a catalyst gathering different interests around a common objective. Secondly, as it corresponds to different territorial representations and objectives, the Mediterranean corridor cannot be materialized as infrastructure because this materiality would deprive it from its role as a federator of interests and would therefore destroy the fragile unity that was made possible by its claim. This inherent material impossibility of the Mediterranean corridor is at the same time a fundamental component of its position as a mediator between the different stakeholders. Finally, being at the centre of a territorialisation process that is indeed plural, the Mediterranean corridor echoes all three meanings of this concept: it is one of the avatars of the major European and Spanish spatial structures; it is also a factor of the emergence of new territorial structures at a local scale; and it allows a reorganisation of the interactions of the different stakeholders around a project, within its very own spatial manifestation
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Éloïse Libourel. Le corridor ferroviaire méditerranéen : planification, politisation et territorialisation d'un projet d'aménagement. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Université Paris-Est, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PESC1180⟩. ⟨tel-01362229⟩

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