Quantitative analysis and biomechanical modeling of the balance alteration during aging

Abstract : Aging of the global population challenges scientific community in finding ways to live longer, but also in better condition. Falling of the elderly is known to be the start of a vicious cycle leading to loss of autonomy, involving great costs for the society as well as for the patient. Falling is the consequence of the loss of an efficient balance involving skeleton, muscles and cognitive capacities. The objective of this PhD was to search for early changes leading to pathological aging, in order to detect people at risk. The first part reports the characterization of the postural alignment, of both young and older asymptomatic adults, from 3D reconstruction of their skeleton based on bi-planar X-rays. An invariant was found and compensatory strategies have been identified for aging adults. The second part focuses on the 3D reconstructions of the muscles, based on MRI images, both for young adults and older adults with spinal deformities. This part identifies muscular changes in relation with postural alterations. The last part of this PhD tackles the adjustment and personalization of a biomechanical musculo-skeletal model computing the resulting load in the inter-vertebral joint. The control loop approach of the model aims to limit these loads by activating appropriate muscles. The use of 3D personalized geometry as input of the model allows a better understanding of specific compensatory mechanisms occurring during aging or pathological evolution. This part reveals the influence of the postural alteration on the muscular recruitment pattern. This PhD brings to light aging alterations of the skeleton and muscles; this could lead to biomarkers’ identification allowing a better identification of aging people at risk.
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Submitted on : Friday, October 14, 2016 - 11:40:29 AM
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Celia Amabile. Quantitative analysis and biomechanical modeling of the balance alteration during aging. Biomechanics [physics.med-ph]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016ENAM0031⟩. ⟨tel-01381264⟩

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