Études fines des échanges énergétiques entre les bâtiments et l'atmosphère urbaine

Abstract : This thesis work is about the effect of buildings on the urban atmosphere and more precisely the energetic exchanges that take place between these two systems. In order to model more finely the thermal effects of buildings on the atmospheric flows in simulations run under the CFD software Code_Saturne, we proceed to couple this tool with the building model BuildSysPro. This library is run under Dymola and can generate matrices describing the building thermal properties that can be used outside this software. In order to carry out the coupling, we use these matrices in a code that allows the building thermal calculations and the CFD to exchange their results. After a review about the physical phenomena and the existing models, we explain the interactions between the atmosphere and the urban elements, especially buildings. The latter can impact the air flows dynamically, as they act as obstacles, and thermally, through their surface temperatures. At first, we analyse the data obtained from the measurement campaign EM2PAU that we use in order to validate the coupled model. EM2PAU was carried out in Nantes in 2011 and represents a canyon street with two rows of four containers. Its distinctive feature lies in the simultaneous measurements of the air and wall temperatures as well as the wind speeds with anemometers located on a 10 m-high mast for the reference wind and on six locations in the canyon. This aims for studying the thermal influence of buildings on the air flows. Then the numerical simulations of the air flows in EM2PAU is carried out with different methods that allow us to calculate or impose the surface temperature we use, for each of the container walls. The first method consists in imposing their temperatures from the measurements. For each wall, we set the temperature to the surface temperature that was measured during the EM2PAU campaign. The second method involves imposing the outdoor air temperature that was measured at a given time to all the surfaces, reducing every heat exchange to almost zero. The third method at last is the coupled simulation of Code_Saturne and BuildSysPro where BuildSysPro calculates the wall temperature from the Code_Saturne data. . The results of these different ways of modelling the wall temperatures are then compared in order to show the thermal effects of building wall heating on the air flows. We notice that the dynamic effects are dominant and can generate vertical wind speed that can pass several meters per second. On the other hand, differences of surface temperatures higher than 15°C can influence the vertical wind speed for less than 0.5 meters per second. These thermal effects are not easily highlighted with measured data because of the other phenomena that can impact the air flows. However they can be quantified with numerical studies
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Noëlie Daviau. Études fines des échanges énergétiques entre les bâtiments et l'atmosphère urbaine. Océan, Atmosphère. Université Paris-Est, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PESC1005⟩. ⟨tel-01397999⟩

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