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Theses

Colourful linear programming

Abstract : The colorful Carathéodory theorem, proved by Bárány in 1982, states the following. Given d Å1 sets of points S1, . . . ,SdÅ1 µ Rd , each of them containing 0 in its convex hull, there exists a colorful set T containing 0 in its convex hull, i.e. a set T µ SdÅ1 iÆ1 Si such that jT \Si j • 1 for all i and such that 0 2 conv(T ). This result gave birth to several questions, some algorithmic and some more combinatorial. This thesis provides answers on both aspects. The algorithmic questions raised by the colorful Carathéodory theorem concern, among other things, the complexity of finding a colorful set under the condition of the theorem, and more generally of deciding whether there exists such a colorful set when the condition is not satisfied. In 1997, Bárány and Onn defined colorful linear programming as algorithmic questions related to the colorful Carathéodory theorem. The two questions we just mentioned come under colorful linear programming. This thesis aims at determining which are the polynomial cases of colorful linear programming and which are the harder ones. New complexity results are obtained, refining the sets of undetermined cases. In particular, we discuss some combinatorial versions of the colorful Carathéodory theorem from an algorithmic point of view. Furthermore, we show that computing a Nash equilibrium in a bimatrix game is polynomially reducible to a colorful linear programming problem. On our track, we found a new way to prove that a complementarity problem belongs to the PPAD class with the help of Sperner’s lemma. Finally, we present a variant of the “Bárány-Onn” algorithm, which is an algorithmcomputing a colorful set T containing 0 in its convex hull whose existence is ensured by the colorful Carathéodory theorem. Our algorithm makes a clear connection with the simplex algorithm. After a slight modification, it also coincides with the Lemke method, which computes a Nash equilibriumin a bimatrix game. The combinatorial question raised by the colorful Carathéodory theorem concerns the number of positively dependent colorful sets. Deza, Huang, Stephen, and Terlaky (Colourful simplicial depth, Discrete Comput. Geom., 35, 597–604 (2006)) conjectured that, when jSi j Æ d Å1 for all i 2 {1, . . . ,d Å1}, there are always at least d2Å1 colourful sets containing 0 in their convex hulls. We prove this conjecture with the help of combinatorial objects, known as the octahedral systems. Moreover, we provide a thorough study of these objects
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Pauline Sarrabezolles. Colourful linear programming. General Mathematics [math.GM]. Université Paris-Est, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015PESC1033⟩. ⟨tel-01400198⟩

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