Characterization of anthropogenic and environmental pressures influencing the bacterial compartment in shallow lakes

Abstract : Although bacteria are widespread in lacustrine environments, their composition and abundance vary at the regional and also at the local scale. A better understanding of the factors responsible for these biogeographic patterns would improve our knowledge of these aquatic systems and thus their potential response to anthropogenic pressures. In this context, this thesis studied the biogeography of the bacterial compartment in a set of shallow lakes located in the Paris area. The main objectives of this study were to assess at the regional and local scale the factors responsible for the biogeographical patterns on (i) the entire bacterial community, and (ii) a specific bacterial group, i.e. the nontuberculous mycobacteria. To achieve these objectives two complementary approaches were undertaken. First, at the regional scale, the spatial variability was assessed by sampling 49 lakes during three consecutive summers. A finer study was also performed to characterize the spatiotemporal dynamics of the bacterial compartment over a two-year monthly monitoring and during six important rain events within the Créteil Lake (Val de Marne).At the regional scale, the spatial variability of the bacterial community structure for the three summers (assessed by T-RFLP) was predicted for 76% (mean r-squared) by stochastic processes and less than 14% by deterministic factors including environmental parameters (trophic status) and dispersal-related process (connection to a river and PCNM axes). The analysis of the bacterial composition by high-throughput sequencing (Illumina MiSeq) showed similar tendencies to those acquired by T-RFLP. However, this analysis revealed that the importance of the processes involved in biogeographical patterns could vary according to the bacterial phyla or classes considered. Spatial variability of mycobacterial densities (real time PCR) was explained up to 50% by deterministic factors (water pH, amount of labile iron and connection to a river).At the local scale, the monitoring of Creteil Lake revealed no significant spatial variation (along the horizontal and vertical transect) on the structure of the bacterial community and mycobacterial densities. However, a specific study of two lakes showed that mycobacterial density and diversity significantly varied among the different compartments of the lakes. Inversely, significant temporal variations on the bacterial community structure were observed over the two-year of monitoring, mainly related to water temperature changes. Although mycobacterial densities were relatively stable over the Créteil Lake monitoring, their variations were only predicted by stochastic processes up to 35%
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Adélaïde Roguet. Characterization of anthropogenic and environmental pressures influencing the bacterial compartment in shallow lakes. Hydrology. Université Paris-Est, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015PESC1139⟩. ⟨tel-01400222⟩

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