Out-Of-Equilibrium Dynamics and Locality in Long-Range Many-Body Quantum Systems

Lorenzo Cevolani 1
1 Laboratoire Charles Fabry / Optique atomique
LCF - Laboratoire Charles Fabry
Abstract : In this thesis we present our results on the propagation of correlations in long-range interacting quantum systems. The dynamics of local observables in these systems cannot be described with the standard methods used in equilibrium statistical physics and completely new methods have to be developed. Several bounds on the time evolution of correlations have been derived for these systems. However the propagation found in experimental and numerical results is completely different and several regimes are present depending on the long-range character of the interactions. Here we present analytical expressions to describe the time evolution of generic observables in systems where the Hamiltonian takes a quadratic form with long- and short-range interactions. These expressions describe the spreading of local observables as the spreading of the fundamental excitations of the system. We apply these expressions to a spin model finding three different propagation regimes. They can be described qualitatively et quantitatively by the divergences in the energy spectrum. The most important result is that the propagation is at most ballistic, but it can be also significantly slower, where the general bounds predict a propagation faster than ballistic. This points out that the bounds are not able to describe properly the propagation, but a more specific approach is needed. We then move to a system of lattice bosons interacting via long-range interactions. In this case we study two different observables finding completely different results for the same interactions: the spreading of two-body correlations is always ballistic while the one of the one-body correlations ranges from faster-than-ballistic to ballistic. Using our general analytic expressions we find that different parts of the spectrum contribute differently to different observables determining the previous differences. This points out that an observable-dependent notion of locality, missing in the general bounds, have to be developed to correctly describe the time evolution.
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Lorenzo Cevolani. Out-Of-Equilibrium Dynamics and Locality in Long-Range Many-Body Quantum Systems. Optics [physics.optics]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLO011⟩. ⟨tel-01424424⟩

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