diffusion collective de lumière résonantes par des un nano-nuage d'atomes froids

Joseph Pellegrino 1
1 Laboratoire Charles Fabry / Optique Quantique
LCF - Laboratoire Charles Fabry
Abstract : This thesis reports an experimental study of the modifications of the near-resonant light scattering properties of mesoscopic cold clouds of rubidium 87 which densities are tunable. for densities of the order of 1014 atoms/cm3, inter-atomic distances can be smaller than the wavelength of the radiation at resonance with the d2 line (780 nm) of rubidium 87. the magnitude of the dipole-dipole interactions between the scatters is such that they can no longer be considered as independent of each other: a phenomenon called collective scattering. the methods used to produce the studied samples are based on cooling (zeeman slower and magneto-optical trap) and trapping (optical tweezers) techniques for neutral atoms. they allow obtaining cold (100 µK) atomic ensembles containing from exactly one to several hundreds of atoms. the observations performed are based on the light scattered by these atoms which is collected thanks to a high numerical aperture optical system. in a first step, this study consists in characterizing the near-resonant light scattering by a single atom. it leads to the measurement of the delay in the scattering by an atom of a wave packet of light, called wigner delay, in conditions close to those of a gedanken experiment. in a second step, this study deals with the collective scattering of light by dense atomic ensembles. it especially reports a measurement of the suppression of the excitation of the nano-clouds versus their densities.
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Joseph Pellegrino. diffusion collective de lumière résonantes par des un nano-nuage d'atomes froids. Optique [physics.optics]. Institut d’Optique Graduate School, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014IOTA0010⟩. ⟨tel-01426165⟩

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