One-dimensional Bose Gases on an Atom Chip : Correlations in Momentum Space and Theoretical Investigation of Loss-induced Cooling.

Aisling Johnson 1
1 Laboratoire Charles Fabry / Optique atomique
LCF - Laboratoire Charles Fabry
Abstract : We present experimental and theoretical results on ultracold one-dimensional (1D) Bose gases, trapped at the surface of a micro-structure. A large part of the doctoral work was dedicated to the upgrade of the experimental apparatus: the laser system was replaced and the installation of a new imaging objective of high numerical aperture (0.4) required the modification of the atom chip design and the vacuum system. We then probed second-order correlations in momentum space, using a focussing method which allows us to record the velocity distribution of our gas in a single shot. Our data span the weakly-interacting regime of the 1D Bose gas, going from the ideal Bose gas regime to the quasi-condensate. These measurements revealed bunching in both phases, while in the quasi-condensate off-diagonal negative correlations, a the signature of the absence of long-range order in 1D, were revealed. These experimental results agree well with analytical calculations and exact Quantum Monte Carlo simulations. A second project focussed on the cooling of such 1D gases. Since the samples lie in the ground state of the transverse trap, energy selection to carry out usual evaporative cooling is not possible. An alternative cooling scheme, based on non-selective removal of particles, was proposed and demonstrated by colleagues. These findings are compatible with observations on our setup, similar to theirs. Firstly, we also reached temperatures as low as 10% of the transverse gap in earlier experiments. Secondly, with classical field simulations we demonstrate the robustness of the non-thermal arising from these losses: different modes indeed lose energy at different rates. This agrees with the following observation: depending on the thermometry we use, each probing excitations of different energies, the measured temperatures are different, beyond experimental uncertainty. Finally, we relate this non-thermal state to the integrable nature of the 1D Bose gas.
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Aisling Johnson. One-dimensional Bose Gases on an Atom Chip : Correlations in Momentum Space and Theoretical Investigation of Loss-induced Cooling.. Optics [physics.optics]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLO013⟩. ⟨tel-01432392⟩

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