Étude du comportement mécanique de sphères creuses composites sous sollicitations dynamiques.Application à un bouclier de choc à l’oiseau

Abstract : Hollow sphere structure (HSS) belongs to cellular solids that have been studied recently for its multiples properties. In our case, HSS aims to absorb soft impacts energy on an airliner cockpit. HSS is investigated through the SAMBA (Shock Absorber Material for Bird-shield Application) project because of its promises in term of specific energy dissipated (J/kg) during impact.First of all, quasi-static and dynamic (v = 5 mm/min to v = 2 m/s) uniaxial compression tests are conducted at room temperature on a single sphere (D = 30 mm). Rapid crack propagation (RCP) is observed to be predominant at macroscopic scale. The formalism of Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (L.E.F.M.) is therefore used to estimate the dynamic energy release rate GIdc . The crack tip location is measured during the crack propagation using a high speed camera. The Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to simulate the dynamic fracture by implementing the node release technique. The dynamic energy release rate can be determined using an experimentally measured crack history. In spherical structures the numerical results reveal a high proportion of energy dissipated through inertial effects as well as a dependence of the thickness of the hollow sphere over the range of 0.04 mm to 1.2 mm.The DEM model Is then employed to reproduce the RCP according to two failure criterions: a stress criterion and a coupled stress-energy criterion. It reveals to be an interesting way to model the mechanical behavior of brittle materials.Eventually, experimental and numerical multi-spheres tests are performed to evaluate the behavior of brittle hollow spheres within an assembly.
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Arthur Core. Étude du comportement mécanique de sphères creuses composites sous sollicitations dynamiques.Application à un bouclier de choc à l’oiseau. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016ENAM0039⟩. ⟨tel-01445246⟩

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