Modélisation des effets de défauts et d’intégrité de surface sur la tenue en fatigue dans les composants forgés

Abstract : This study is part of the DEFISURF project, with the goal of analysing and modelling the various effects of the surface on the fatigue strength of forged components. Two components are studied: a cold-extruded specimen and a connecting rod which is hot-forged and then cleaned by shot-blasting. For each component, different batches are studied in order to quantify the effects of the process on the mechanical characteristics and the fatigue behaviour. Two different reduction of sections are used for the cold-extruded specimens and shot-peening is used to obtain various surface states for the connecting rods.The various batches are thoroughly characterised and fatigue tests are performed. Traction, torsion and plane-bending tests are conducted on the cold-extruded specimens. Fatigue specimens are machined from the central part of the connecting rods and loaded in plane-bending.For cold-extrusion, the parameters with the most influence in fatigue are the prestrain induced during forging and the residual stresses. In hot-forging, the surface defects produced during forging and the residual stresses induced by the shot-blasting have the most influence.For each component, a fatigue model is suggested. For the cold-extruded specimens, a multiaxial fatigue criterion is used to take into account the various fatigue loadings and the effect of the residual stresses. Two approaches are used for the connecting rods. The first is a geometrical analysis of the defect which approximates them with an ellipsoid. The second approach uses finite element simulations of the critical defects. The shot-peening residual stresses are integrated in the simulations with a multiaxial criterion. These simulations predict the fatigue limit of the specimens with an error of around 15%.
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Benjamin Gerin. Modélisation des effets de défauts et d’intégrité de surface sur la tenue en fatigue dans les composants forgés. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016ENAM0040⟩. ⟨tel-01448242⟩

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