Analyse multiéchelle de l'usinage des matériaux biosourcés : Application aux agrocomposites

Abstract : Natural fibers such as flax, hemp, bamboo or miscanthus are increasingly used as fibrous reinforcement in order to reduce the weight, the cost and the environmental impact of products. They replace the conventional composites based on polymer resin and synthetic fibers. The finishing operations by machining of these biocomposite products remain a technological issue and a scientific challenge. This is mainly due to the complex structure of natural fibers composed of cellulose and extracted from plant leaf or plant stem. This research work provides a multiscale analysis of cutting behavior of these renewable materials in 2D orthogonal cutting and 3D milling processes. The primary objective is to better understand the major physical mechanisms activated by the material removal process of biocomposites. Furthermore, to identify the scale effects observed in machining, a tribo-mechanical characterization of stratified biocomposites by nanoindentation and scratch as well as specific mechanical tests were carried out. Natural fibers are distinguished from synthetic fibers by a transverse flexibility, which enable them good ability to deform upon contact with the cutting tool. Thus, the mechanical tool/material contact stiffness controls the cutting by plastic shearing of plant fibers and, consequently, it controls the quality of the biocomposite-machined surfaces. Otherwise, natural fibers, associated with a thermoplastic polymer matrix, have an elastoplastic behavior with a ductile damage when they are stressed in their transverse direction. This explains the production of continuous chips when machining biocomposites, unlike conventional synthetic composites. The mechanical and tribological behaviors of plant fibers in machining are dependent on the contact scale. This explains the multiscale cutting character of biocomposites where the machinability is intimately related to the size of the fibrous reinforcement.
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Faissal Chegdani. Analyse multiéchelle de l'usinage des matériaux biosourcés : Application aux agrocomposites. Génie des procédés. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016ENAM0043⟩. ⟨tel-01451078⟩

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