Contribution à la qualification du procédé industriel de soudo-brasage laser acier-aluminium à grande vitesse

Abstract : Weight reduction of vehicles is a key objective in the automotive industry. Particularly, the use of aluminum alloys for the roof is one of the most promising path studied by manufacturers to save several kilograms. Therefore, the laser brazing process has a place of choice for assembling heterogeneous aluminum roof / steel body-side. However, in addition to issues related to the heterogeneity of the welded joint (formation of intermetallic compounds, for example), issues related to the mass production emerge: an environment with strong industrial constraints, high and robust levels of compliance, a production rate involving high brazing speeds between 4 and 6 m / min and fitting with industrial configurations. The objective of this thesis is to conduct a physical and technological analysis of laser brazing process in the case of a heterogeneous lightweight roof / body-side assembly. Firstly, a set of assumptions about the influence of the physical process, the process variables and the industrial environment on the compliance and the reproducibility of these assemblies are made. Then, validation was conducted by tests at scale 1 on a laser industrial production set-up, extended by analysis of metallurgy and microstructure of assemblies and a numerical simulation of the process. The link between the physical phenomena of the process and the high speed steel-aluminium brazing process parameters has been identified. Energy variables showed a strong impact on the level of compliance achieved and on the dispersion of results. These variables tend to strongly influence the physical phenomena of the process and especially thermal behaviors at the steel / aluminum interface, directly impacting the formation of intermetallic compounds and their microstructures. Different grain sizes were observed depending on the process parameters, influencing hence the mechanical strength of assemblies. Finally, the modulation of the brazing thermal cycle, driven by the activated physical phenomenon of the process, allows bringing out the most optimal configuration for an industrial application of the process.
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Guillaume Filliard. Contribution à la qualification du procédé industriel de soudo-brasage laser acier-aluminium à grande vitesse. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016ENAM0049⟩. ⟨tel-01455711⟩

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