A contribution to non-linear PDEs with applications to the level set method, non-Newtonian fluid flows and the Boltzmann equation

Abstract : This thesis consists of three different and independent chapters, concerning the mathematical study of three distinctive physical problems, which are modelled by three non- linear partial differential equations. These equations concern the level set method, the theory of incompressible flow of non-Newtonian materials and the kinetic theory of rare- fied gases. The first chapter of the thesis concerns the dynamics of moving interfaces and contains a rigorous justification of a numerical procedure called re-initialization, for which there are several applications in the context of the level set method. We apply these results for first order level set equations. We write the re-initialization procedure as a splitting algorithm and study the convergence of the algorithm using homogenization techniques in the time variable. As a result of the rigorous analysis, we are also able to introduce a new method for the approximation of the distance function in the context of the level set method. In the case where one only looks for a level set function with gradient bounded from below near the zero level, we propose a simpler approximation. In the general case where the zero level might present changes of topology we introduce a new notion of relaxed limits. In the second chapter of the thesis, we study a free boundary problem arising in the study of the flow of an incompressible non-Newtonian material with Drucker-Prager plasticity on an inclined plane. We derive a subdifferential equation, which we reformulate as a variational problem containing a term with linear growth in the gradient variable, and we study the problem in an unbounded domain. We show that the equations are well posed and satisfy some regularity properties. We are then able to connect the physical parameters with the abstract problem and prove some quantitative properties of the solution. In particular, we show that the solution has compact support and the support is the free boundary. We also construct explicit solutions of an ordinary differential equation, which we use to estimate the free boundary. The last chapter of the thesis is dedicated to the study of infinite energy solutions of the homogeneous Boltzmann equation with Maxwellian molecules. We obtain new results concerning the existence of eternal solutions in the space of probability measure with infinite energy (i.e. the second order moment is infinite). These solutions describe the asymptotic behaviour of other infinite energy solutions but could also be useful in the study of intermediate asymptotic states of solutions with finite but arbitrarily large energy. We use harmonic analysis tools to study the equation, where the velocity variable is expressed in the Fourier space. Finally, a logarithmic scaling of the time variable allows to determine the correct asymptotic scaling of the solutions
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Eleftherios Ntovoris. A contribution to non-linear PDEs with applications to the level set method, non-Newtonian fluid flows and the Boltzmann equation. General Mathematics [math.GM]. Université Paris-Est, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016PESC1057⟩. ⟨tel-01482110⟩

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