Concevoir et optimiser la gestion hydrologique du ruissellement pour une maîtrise à la source de la contamination des eaux pluviales urbaines

Abstract : Urban runoff discharge is today identified a major source of surface water impairment. In recent years, on-site stormwater control, in small and relatively simple vegetated systems, providing volume reduction through infiltration or evapotranspiration, has become increasingly popular due to the inability of conventional drainage systems to limit the amount of stormwater and pollutant directed to the environment. While such practices clearly offer opportunities to mitigate the adverse effects of urban runoff, their performance remains insufficient and is yet not completely understood. The main purpose of this Ph.D. thesis is therefore to investigate the relation between the hydrological behaviour of these source-control systems and pollutant removal efficiencies so as to provide design tools or guidelines that support practitioners in the implementation of efficient stormwater management practices.Current stormwater management practices are first examined on the basis of a literature review of various guidelines or regulatory documents so as to identify the strategies that may be promoted for on-site pollution control, in France or abroad. This analysis indicates that recommendations can be quite variable depending on the country or the community and do not systematically reflect on-site pollution control objectives, which may result in the implementation of inappropriate stormwater management systems.A modelling system based on the representation of a pervious facility collecting runoff and pollutant loads generated over a small urban catchment, allowing the simulation of different scenarios in terms of urban surfaces characteristics and source-control system design, for long rainfall periods, is later developed to investigate the relation between the hydrological behaviour and the pollutant removal efficiencies of on-site stormwater management practices. An improved description of the hydrological processes in the source control system is adopted with the introduction of an infiltration-redistribution scheme accounting for the evolution of soil moisture so as to better replicate the temporal variability of infiltration fluxes. The opportunity of implementing relatively simple conceptual runoff quality models to simulate distinctive pollutant emission dynamics is also investigated: a generic model formulation is adopted and calibrated to replicate suspended solids concentrations in urban street runoff or zinc concentrations from a metal roof. A sensitivity analysis of the modelling system is later conducted so as to evaluate the influence of the different input factors and better understand the effect of some modelling hypotheses for the assessment of the performance of stormwater source control practices.The practical value of the modelling system is finally illustrated with the production of sizing diagrams displaying pollution control efficiency estimates as a function a limited number of design parameters, from which the relevance of a large variety of runoff control scenarios may be evaluated. The results presented in this study, corresponding to the rainfall conditions encountered in Paris region, suggest that the infiltration or evapotranspiration of a relatively small fraction of runoff in a simple dead storage volume could result in a significant reduction of pollutant discharges for soils exhibiting saturated hydraulic conductivity values greater than 10-6 m.s-1. In the case of lower saturated hydraulic conductivity values, this study however evidences possible failures of source control system due to a limited drainage capacity (extended ponding duration and saturation of the soil profile over significant depths). Results therefore suggest that the implementation diffuse stormwater management practices, with large infiltration/evapotranspiration areas and limited storage depths, should generally be preferred to achieve pollution control and ensure correct hydrological functioning of the source control systems.
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Jérémie Sage. Concevoir et optimiser la gestion hydrologique du ruissellement pour une maîtrise à la source de la contamination des eaux pluviales urbaines. Hydrologie. Université Paris-Est, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PESC1153⟩. ⟨tel-01490080⟩

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