Emission X de plasmas : Spectroscopie et imagerie à haute résolution

Abstract : Most of plasmas created in laboratories for experiments in domains such as inertial confinement fusion are non-LTE plasmas. The modeling of the atomic kinetics of these plasmas is crucial to understand the radiative properties of these environments. There is a strong demand for experiments in which the plasma is characterized by independent X-ray spectroscopy diagnostics. Thus the development of new diagnostics for these experiments is also a major stake.In line with previous experiments, we studied L-shell X-ray mission of aluminum (Al Zal = 13) and potassium bromide (KBr, ZK = 19, ZBr = 35). The goal here is to simultaneously obtain the measurement of the plasma’s X-ray emission and the most accurate characterization possible of the hydrodynamic parameters of this emitting plasma. However it has been difficult to reproduce these experimental results with simulation codes because the electron density and temperature spatial gradients were too important. A new preliminary experiment was performed on ELFIE installation for lower Z targets, Al (Z = 12) and C (Z = 6). Its aim is to show that we were able to better control the plasma’s hydrodynamic parameters in order for it to be more homogeneous and thus easier to model.Following the results of this experiment, we could adjust the various geometries (diagnostics and targets) to reproduce it on a KBr plasma.For the Laser MegaJoule project (LMJ) X-ray imagers will observe the target surfaces. The resolutions requirements will reach the order of a few microns.We conducted a preliminary study of Fresnel zone plate (FZP) as new X-ray microscope with very high spatial resolution. Metrology measurements of FZP were performed on synchrotron facilities (SOLEIL, BESSY II) and laser (EQUINOX): its resolution was measured to be less than 3 microns for a monochromatic beam. Adding a multilayer mirror (MMC) to the FZP provides a spectral selection of 100 eV centered on Heβ line of aluminum (1860 eV). This diagnostic was named Fresnel Ultra High Resolution Imager (FUHRI) and was used on luli2000 installation: we measured a 3.8 microns total resolution in January 2015. The diagnostic was upgraded in 2016 by adding a second measurement channel, so called FUHRIx2, which provides the simultaneous measurement of the size of the emission zone of two different wavelengths. This experiment is a first step to show that it is possible to measure the hydrodynamic parameters of a laser-created plasma with high-resolution measurement of this size for multiple lines.In parallel, LZF the LMJ is also tested to investigate their potential and define their terms of use with the restriction of such a facility.
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Alexandre Do. Emission X de plasmas : Spectroscopie et imagerie à haute résolution. Physique des plasmas [physics.plasm-ph]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLX061⟩. ⟨tel-01492937⟩

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