Theoretical and numerical aspects of wave propagation phenomena in complex domains and applications to remote sensing

Abstract : This thesis is about some boundary integral operators defined on the unit disk in a three-dimensional spaces, their relation with the exterior Laplace and Helmholtz problems, and their application to the preconditioning of the systems arising when solving these problems using the boundary element method.We begin by describing the so-called integral method for the solution of the exterior Laplace and Helmholtz problems defined on the exterior of objects with Lipschitz-regular boundaries, or on the exterior of open two-dimensional surfaces in a three-dimensional space. We describe the integral formulation for the Laplace and Helmholtz problem in these cases, their numerical implementation using the boundary element method, and we discuss its advantages and challenges: its computational complexity (both algorithmic and memory complexity) and the inherent ill-conditioning of the associated linear systems.In the second part we show an optimal preconditioning technique (independent of the chosen discretization) based on operator preconditioning. We show that this technique is easily applicable in the case of problems defined on the exterior of objects with Lipschitz-regular boundary surfaces, but that its application fails for problems defined on the exterior of open surfaces in three-dimensional spaces. We show that the boundary integral operators associated with the resolution of the Dirichlet and Neumann problems defined on the exterior of open surfaces have inverse operators, and that these operators would provide optimal preconditioners, but that they are not easily obtainable. Then we show a technique to explicitly obtain such inverse operators for the particular case when the open surface is the unit disk in a three-dimensional space. Their explicit inverse operators will be given, however, in the form of series, and will not be immediately applicable in the use of boundary element methods.In the third part we show how some modifications to these inverse operators allow us to obtain variational explicit and closed form expressions, no longer expressed as series, but also conserve nonetheless some characteristics that are relevant for their preconditioning effect. These explicit and closed forms expressions are applicable in boundary element methods. We obtain precise variational expressions for them and propose numerical schemes to compute the integrals needed for their use with boundary elements. The proposed numerical methods are tested using identities available within the developed theory and then used to build preconditioning matrices. Their performance as preconditioners for linear systems is tested for the case of the Laplace and Helmholtz problems for the unit disk. Finally, we propose an extension of this method that allows for the treatment of cases of open surfaces other that the disk. We exemplify and study this extension in its use on a square-shaped and an L-shaped surface screen in a three-dimensional space.
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Pedro Ramaciotti Morales. Theoretical and numerical aspects of wave propagation phenomena in complex domains and applications to remote sensing. Analysis of PDEs [math.AP]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLX063⟩. ⟨tel-01494464⟩

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