Influence des étapes de production du parfum issu des écorces d’orange amère (Citrus aurantium L. ssp amara) sur la qualité aromatique

Abstract : The Grand Marnier® liqueur produced by the Société des Produits Marnier-Lapostolle (SPML), is composed of a bitter orange aroma. This aroma, called parfum, is produced from essential oil (EO) of bitter orange peelings that underwent a maceration-distillation process. The aim of this PhD study was to focus on the key odour compounds of the bitter orange peelings, and understand their behaviours throughout the process, in order to find optimisation strategies. The following strategies were applied: (1) identification of odour volatiles compounds in bitter orange EO and parfum; (2) observation and understanding of the steps of the parfum production, from raw material to distillation, and study of their impacts on the quality of the parfum; (3) deep study of the multi-stage batch distillation. Among the 51 and 37 volatile compounds identified, we detected by olfactometry 19 odour compounds in EO and 7 in parfum. From the EO results of the strategy (1), a selection of odour compounds, called markers, was thus carried out applying specific filters. This procedure was validated by a classification sensorial study of bitter orange EO from different geographical origins. Observations and results of strategy (2) demonstrated that distillation has the biggest impact on the quality of the parfum. During distillation, 9 key process parameters, such as the alcoholic strength by volume and reflux rate, were continuously recorded. In parallel, markers compounds were quantified in distillate samples collected at specific control points from head to tail cuts. The behaviour of the key markers together the knowledge of their physical-chemical characteristics made it possible to better understand the current lead of the distillation. Thereby changes of distillation parameters were proposed and pilote trials were carried out in the strategy (3). In view to control and optimise the multi-stage batch distillation process, other works were focused on simulation with the BatchColumn software from ProSim®. This requires to: 1) determine the vapour-liquid equilibrium data of certain markers compounds; 2) build a thermodynamic model simulating real experimental data; 3) integrate the experimental data and the model selected in BatchColumn. With this approach, we easily represented the distillation as it was realised in the industry. Futures studies, including changes of parameters such as still composition, distillation and structure parameters, could be carried out to optimise the process and see the impact on these changes of the quality of the parfum.
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Sophie Deterre. Influence des étapes de production du parfum issu des écorces d’orange amère (Citrus aurantium L. ssp amara) sur la qualité aromatique. Alimentation et Nutrition. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0023⟩. ⟨tel-01500293⟩



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