Apport des photodiodes à avalanche HgCdTe pour la télédétection du CO2 atmosphérique par lidar DIAL à 2 micromètres

Abstract : The Short Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) region (1.5-2 μm) is well adapted for diffe- rential absorption lidar technique (DIAL) for several reasons : (i) it covers absorption bands with suitable intensity for the main greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, H2O, etc.) (ii) the extinction due to particles is low (iii) it belongs to the eye safe domain. However, one main drawback has long been the lack of efficient photodetectors for such frequencies. A major enhancement occurred in the early 2000s when it was understood that HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes (APD) present close to unity excess noise factor on top of high gain and very low dark current. These features make this technology an almost ideal amplifier, especially useful for ultra low flux applications such as lidar.In this thesis, we analyze the performances of a custom large diameter (200μm) monopixel HgCdTe-APD based detector (designed at CEA-LETI) in the framework of atmospheric CO2 measurements with the DIAL technique. The laser emitter, a custom solid-state Ho :YLF laser developed at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, is tunable in the 2050-2054nm range and produces 10 mJ pulses at a repetition rate of 2kHz. This emitter is associated to a detection chain adapted to the HgCdTe APD based detector to provide the first atmospheric DIAL measurements using the HgCdTe APD technology.Experiments confirmed the outstanding sensitivity of the detector (75 noise photons per characteristic time given a 20MHz bandwidth) and highlight the huge potential of this technology for any application relying on low light flux detection in SWIR. With the system previously mentioned, we reach an precision of 10-20 % on CO2 mixing ratio for a time-space resolution of 100 m and 4 s for measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. Regarding the detector impulse response, we have shown evidence of a negative influence of reverse bias on the long term settling time of the APD. This phenomenon limits the dynamic range of useful signals and contraints the DIAL system. Thanks to numerical simulation taking into account this behaviour, we derive numerically expected biases on DIAL measurements.
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Arnaud Dumas. Apport des photodiodes à avalanche HgCdTe pour la télédétection du CO2 atmosphérique par lidar DIAL à 2 micromètres. Instrumentations et Détecteurs [physics.ins-det]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLX105⟩. ⟨tel-01504398⟩

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