La méthylation flavine-dépendante d’acides nucléiques : aspects évolutifs, métaboliques, biochimiques et spectroscopiques

Abstract : Enzymes catalyzing the methylation of uridine at its carbon 5 position have appeared independently in different forms across evolution. Thymidylate synthases ThyA and the flavoprotein ThyX catalyze the de novo synthesis of dTMP, an essential DNA precursor in the three domains of life. They are encoded by heterologous genes and have drastically different structures and reaction mechanisms. On the other hand, this uridine methylation is also performed by tRNA and rRNA post-transcriptional modification enzymes.This thesis assesses the question of the evolutionary constraints that have led independently to four kinds of uridine methylation. The first part describes the identification of a metabolic pathway allowing the complementation of thymidine auxotrophy by non-natural nucleotide analogs in Escherichia coli. A synthetic biology approach, aiming to establish an alternative pathway for thymidylate biosynthesis, was also implemented and a selection strategy for thymidine auxotrophy-complementing genes, could be developed.In a second part, biochemical and spectral studies where realised on the flavin-dependent methyltransferase TrmFO, responsible for the post-transcriptional methylation of uridine at the invariant position 54 of tRNA in several microorganisms. The involvement of specific amino acid residues in substrate fixation and in stabilization of potential reaction intermediates was demonstrated. Their spectral characterization supports previously proposed reaction schemes for flavin-dependent thymidylate forming enzymes. These observations are currently being pursued by parallel approaches combining time-resolved spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations, aiming to further our understanding of how flavin mediates the transfer of carbon molecules from folate to uracil rings.
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Pierre Sournia. La méthylation flavine-dépendante d’acides nucléiques : aspects évolutifs, métaboliques, biochimiques et spectroscopiques. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLX108⟩. ⟨tel-01508953⟩

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