Etude numérique et expérimentale du transfert de masse, par advection et diffusion en écoulement pulsé, sur des stents actifs.

Abstract : The disturbance of the flow in the vicinity of the arterial wall equipped with a stent plays a key role in the onset and development of complications related to cardiovascular diseases (stenosis, restenosis, thrombosis...). The topology of the flow field in the intra-stent zone is very complex. Indeed, in the vicinity of the stent, recirculation zones form upstream and downstream of the stent strut where wall shear stress is very low. In vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the role of the in-stent flow features on cardiovascular diseases.The correct estimation of the wall shear stress, the understanding of the behavior of the in-stent flow and its role in the transfer of the drug are expected to help optimize treatments (stent geometry, drug composition...). The numerical approach (CFD) is a useful and versatile way to study these phenomena. However, the accuracy and the relevance of the results depend on the choice of the flow model, the boundary conditions and the stent and artery geometry.Firstly we study in this work the impact of the hemodynamic model on the in-stent flow characteristics. Three numerical models describing the coronary flow are used. These models are: the steady model "MP", the simplified pulsatile model "MPS" and the complete pulsatile model "MPC" based on Womersley's analysis. We show the importance of the pulsatility of the flow but at the expense of a high increase in the computing time. Secondly we study experimentally the in-stent flow using measurement technique "PIV". This experimental study confirms the previous numerical results. Finally we examine numerically the effects of the flow pulsatility on the mass fluxes released by the faces of a drug eluting stent. This numerical study highlights the importance of the coupling between the recirculation zones and the mass transfer into the arterial wall.
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Fatiha Chabi. Etude numérique et expérimentale du transfert de masse, par advection et diffusion en écoulement pulsé, sur des stents actifs.. Biomécanique [physics.med-ph]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016ENAM0051⟩. ⟨tel-01512747⟩

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