Phénomènes d'érosion interne dans les graves et les sols grossiers : Application aux digues et aux barrages

Abstract : Internal erosion is the main cause of failure of hydraulic structures such dykes and dams. The consequences of such failures are substantial and costly. The objective of this thesis is to better understand one of the erosion phenomena, the suffusion, and to characterize the initiation and the evolution of this phenomenon. A physical modeling approach is used for this study. Tests are carried out in a Plexiglas pipe of 18 cm inner diameter, equipped with pressure sensors, flowmeter and turbidimeter. A device for collecting the eroded particles, at selected time intervals, is installed in the downstream part of the device. In this study we performed a series of tests on coarse cohesionless soil. In this type of material, erosion is manifested by suffusion. It corresponds to the detachment and transport of fine particles through the pore space of the coarse particles. First, a cohesionless soil reconstitution protocol is developed. The idea is to make wet mixtures with water content depending on the fine particle content. To overcome some problems encountered in carrying out the tests, the device is arranged vertically, and the materials tested are reconstituted from mixtures of sand particles. A parametric study on the influence of several parameters such as particle size distribution, flow pressure, nature and content of clay particles and initial density are conducted. The results show that the erodibility of the material depends on the shape of the particle size distribution. Indeed erosion is more pronounced for materials containing less fine particles. This erodability is more pronounced when the curve is gap-graded. Erodibility of the tested soils increases with the hydraulic load. The addition of clay particles increases the resistance to suffusion of the soils. Three categories of clayed or fine soils are tested: illite (Argile Verte de Velay), kaolinite (Speswhite), and crushed sand (C10). The results show that materials containing illite are more resistant to suffusion than materials containing kaolinite, whereas materials containing crushed sand are less resistant. This resistance to suffusion increases with clay particle content. The erosion of materials also depends on the initial density of the soil tested. Indeed, for the same applied pressure, the quantity of eroded particles decreases with increasing the initial density
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Rachid Fellag. Phénomènes d'érosion interne dans les graves et les sols grossiers : Application aux digues et aux barrages. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris-Est, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PESC1111⟩. ⟨tel-01541099⟩

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