Nonlinear and dispersive numerical modeling of nearshore waves

Abstract : In this work, a potential flow model based on the Euler-Zakharov equations was developed with the objective of simulating the propagation of irregular and multidirectional sea states from deep water conditions to the coast over variable bathymetry. A highly accurate representation of nonlinear and dispersive effects for bidimensional (2DH) nearshore and coastal domains on the order of kilometers is targeted.The preexisting 1DH version of the model, resolving the Laplace Boundary Value problem using a combination of high-order finite difference schemes in the horizontal direction and a spectral approach in the vertical direction, was improved and validated. The generation of incident waves through the implementation of specific Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions was studied in detail. In practice, these conditions were used in combination witha relaxation zone to improve the stability of the model.The linear dispersion relation of the model was derived analytically for the flat bottom case. Its analysis showed that the accuracy of the representation of dispersive effects improves significantly by increasing the vertical resolution (i.e. the maximum degree of the Chebyshev polynomial basis used to project the potential in the vertical). A convergence study conducted for moderate to highly nonlinear solitary waves confirmed the exponential convergence in the vertical dimension owing to the spectral approach, and the algebraic convergence in time and in space (horizontal dimension) with orders of about 4 (or higher) in agreement with the numerical schemes used.The capability of the model to represent nonlinear effects induced by variable bathymetry, such as the transfer of energy between harmonic components, as well as the accurate representation of dispersive properties, were demonstrated with comparisons to several experimental data sets. A visco-potential flow formulation was also implemented to take into account viscous effects induced by bulk viscosity and bottom friction. This formulation was validated inthe limit of small viscosity for mild slope bathymetries.To represent 2DH wave fields in complex nearshore domains, the model was extended using an unstructured discretization (scattered nodes) in the horizontal plane. The horizontal derivatives were estimated using the RBF-FD (Radial Basis Function - Finite Difference) method, while the spectral approach in the vertical remained unchanged. A series of sensitivity tests were conducted to evaluate numerically the robustness of the RBF-FD method, including a comparison of a variety of RBFs with or without shape factors and augmented polynomials. The 2DH version of the model was used to simulate two wave basin experiments, validating the approach and demonstrating the applicability of this method for 3D wave propagation, including nonlinear effects. As an initial attempt to improve the computational efficiency ofthe model for running simulations of large spatial domains, the code was adapted to use a parallelized direct linear solver
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Cécile Raoult. Nonlinear and dispersive numerical modeling of nearshore waves. Mechanics of the fluids [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris-Est, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016PESC1150⟩. ⟨tel-01547187⟩

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