Vieillissement thermique d’isolants en PVC et PELX de câbles électriques en environnement automobile

Abstract : In the automotive industry, the issue of electrical harness dimensioning consists in an optimal definition of the cross-section of metallic conductors, which increases the wire heating due to Joule effect. However, polymers are the most used materials for insulation despite their high sensitivity to thermal ageing. That is the reason why their durability must be determined in automotive environment to be then taken into account during the dimensioning of electrical harness. For this purpose, we analyzed the thermal aging of two insulation sheaths made of PVC and XLPE in air at temperatures of qualification tests (typically between 100°C and 200°C). For PVC, the main ageing mechanism is the physical loss of plasticizer. The material embrittlement occurs when the concentration of the non-dissolved plasticizer phase, which is dispersed as nodules in the weakly plasticized PVC matrix, reaches a critical value of about 0,2 mol.L-1. In contrast, for XLPE, oxidation leads to material embrittlement at the end of the induction period, i.e. when the totality of antioxidants has been consumed. For each insulation sheath, a kinetic model was derived from the ageing mechanisms and a structural end-of-life criterion was established. This model gives access to the remaining life potential and lifetime of electrical cables in service conditions.
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Tetiana Salivon. Vieillissement thermique d’isolants en PVC et PELX de câbles électriques en environnement automobile. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017ENAM0009⟩. ⟨tel-01547332⟩

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