, Referees' decisions can be debatable and are frequently reported and contested by newspapers

, Essay 3 predicts that a newspaper's evaluation depends on three factors: the social characteristics of REFERENCES

A. Adut, A Theory of Scandal: Victorians, Homosexuality, and the Fall of Oscar Wilde1, American Journal of Sociology, vol.111, issue.1, pp.213-248, 2005.

A. Adut, Advertising and Marketing Communication Practice-Consolidated ICC Code, 2008.

C. L. Ahmadjian and P. Robinson, Safety in numbers: Downsizing and the deinstitutionalization of permanent employment in Japan, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.46, issue.4, pp.622-654, 2001.

G. Ahuja and S. Yayavaram, PERSPECTIVE-Explaining Influence Rents: The Case for an Institutions-Based View of Strategy, Organization Science, vol.22, issue.6, pp.1631-1652, 2011.

F. H. Allport, Social psychology, 1924.

, ASA Non-broadcast Complaint Handling Procedures

M. L. Barnett and T. G. Pollock, The Oxford handbook of corporate reputation, 2012.

M. L. Barnett and A. A. King, Good fences make good neighbors: A longitudinal analysis of an industry self-regulatory institution, Academy of Management Journal, vol.51, issue.6, pp.1150-1170, 2008.

J. Barney, Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage, Journal of management, vol.17, issue.1, pp.99-120, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/s0742-3322(00)17018-4

H. Becker, Outsiders: Studies in The sociology of Deviance, 1963.

A. Bitektine, Toward a theory of social judgments of organizations: The case of legitimacy, reputation, and status, Management Review, vol.36, issue.1, pp.151-179, 2011.

B. Book, Advertising self-regulation in Europe and beyond: EASA, 2010.

T. Boeri and B. Severgnini, Match rigging and the career concerns of referees, Labour Economics, vol.18, issue.3, pp.349-359, 2011.

J. Bonardi and G. D. Keim, Corporate political strategies for widely salient issues, vol.30, pp.555-576, 2005.

M. L. Barnett and T. G. Pollock, The Oxford handbook of corporate reputation, 2012.

. Cap-code, UK Code of Non-broadcast Advertising, Sales Promotion and Direct Marketing, 2010.

G. Cattani, S. Ferriani, G. Negro, and F. Perretti, The structure of consensus: Network ties, legitimation, and exit rates of US feature film producer organizations, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.53, pp.145-182, 2008.

R. B. Cialdini, C. A. Kallgren, and R. R. Reno, A focus theory of normative conduct: A theoretical refinement and reevaluation of the role of norms in human behavior, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol.24, pp.1-243, 1991.

R. H. Coase, The nature of the firm, Economica, vol.4, issue.16, pp.386-405, 1937.

B. Cohen, Recall of categorized word lists, Journal of Experimental Psychology, vol.66, p.227, 1963.

J. S. Coleman, Foundations of Social Theory, 1990.

I. Davidson, . Wn, D. L. Worrell, and C. I. Lee, Stock market reactions to announced corporate illegalities, Journal of Business Ethics, vol.13, issue.12, pp.979-987, 1994.
DOI : 10.1007/bf00881667

F. J. Davis, Crime news in Colorado newspapers, American Journal of Sociology, pp.325-330, 1952.
DOI : 10.1086/220967

D. L. Deephouse and S. M. Carter, An Examination of Differences Between Organizational Legitimacy and Organizational Reputation*, Journal of Management Studies, vol.42, issue.2, pp.329-360, 2005.

D. L. Deephouse, Does isomorphism legitimate?, Academy of Management Journal, vol.39, pp.1024-1039, 1996.
DOI : 10.5465/256722

D. L. Deephouse, To be different, or to be the same? It's a question (and theory) of strategic balance, Strategic Management Journal, vol.20, issue.2, pp.147-166, 1999.

D. L. Deephouse and M. Suchman, The Sage Handbook of Organizational Institutionalism, Social Norms, pp.139-164, 2008.

D. L. Deephouse and P. P. Heugens, Linking social issues to organizational impact: The role of infomediaries and the infomediary process, Journal of Business Ethics, vol.86, pp.541-553, 2009.

V. M. Desai, Mass media and massive failures: Determining organizational efforts to defend field legitimacy following crises, Academy of Management Journal, vol.54, issue.2, pp.263-278, 2011.
DOI : 10.5465/amj.2011.60263082

C. E. Devers, T. Dewett, Y. Mishina, and C. A. Belsito, A general theory of organizational stigma, Organization Science, vol.20, issue.1, pp.154-171, 2009.

P. J. Dimaggio and W. W. Powell, The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields, American Sociological Review, vol.48, pp.147-160, 1983.

P. J. Dimaggio and W. W. Powell, The new institutionalism in organizational analysis, 1991.

M. Djelic and R. Durand, Strong in the morning, dead in the evening: a genealogical and contextual perspective on organizational selection, Advances in Strategic Management, vol.27, pp.279-312, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01891973

N. Dubois, A Socio-Cognitive Approach to Social Norms, 2003.

R. Durand, Organizational evolution and strategic management: Sage, 2006.

R. Durand, H. Rao, and P. Monin, Code and conduct in French cuisine: Impact of code changes on external evaluations, Strategic Management Journal, vol.28, issue.5, pp.455-472, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00459450

R. Durand, Advancing strategy and organization research in concert: Towards an integrated model? Strategic Organization, vol.10, p.297, 2012.

, EASA 2012

K. D. Elsbach and R. I. Sutton, Acquiring organizational legitimacy through illegitimate actions: A marriage of institutional and impression management theories, Academy of Management Journal, vol.35, issue.4, pp.699-738, 1992.

L. Everitt and L. , , 2001.

E. Fauchart, V. Hippel, and E. , Norms-based intellectual property systems: The case of French chefs, Organization Science, vol.19, issue.2, pp.187-201, 2008.

N. T. Feather, Attitudes towards the high achiever: The fall of the tall poppy, Australian Journal of Psychology, vol.41, issue.3, pp.239-267, 1989.

D. C. Feldman, The development and enforcement of group norms, pp.47-53, 1984.

L. Festinger, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, 1957.

G. A. Fine, Enacting norms: Mushrooming and the culture of expectations and explanations, Social Norms, pp.139-164, 2005.

P. Ghemawat, , 1991.

S. D. Graffin, J. Bundy, J. F. Porac, J. B. Wade, and D. P. Quinn, Falls from Grace and the Hazards of High Status The 2009 British MP Expense Scandal and Its Impact on Parliamentary Elites, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.58, issue.3, pp.313-345, 2013.

S. D. Graffin and A. J. Ward, Certifications and reputation: Determining the standard of desirability amidst uncertainty, Organization Science, vol.21, issue.2, pp.331-346, 2010.

H. R. Greve, D. Palmer, and J. E. Pozner, Organizations gone wild: The causes, processes, and consequences of organizational misconduct, The Academy of Management Annals, vol.4, issue.1, pp.53-107, 2010.

E. Griffin, A First Look at Communication Theory, 2003.

C. M. Grimm, H. Lee, and K. G. Smith, Strategy as action: Competitive dynamics and competitive advantage, 2006.

P. Haack and A. Prasad, Beyond Text Analysis: The Unmet Promise of Methodology in MicroInstitutional Research, p.1852925, 2011.

J. R. Hackman, Group influences on individuals, Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Dunnette M, 1976.

D. C. Hambrick and M. Chen, New academic fields as admittance-seeking social movements: The case of strategic management, vol.33, pp.32-54, 2008.

M. T. Hannan, L. Pólos, and G. R. Carroll, Logics of Organization Theory: Audiences, Codes, and Ecologies, 2007.

M. Hechter and K. Opp, Social Norms, 2005.

C. Horne, Sociological perspectives on the emergence of norms, Social Norms, pp.3-34, 2005.

G. Hsu, Jacks of all trades and masters of none: Audiences' reactions to spanning genres in feature film production, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.51, pp.420-450, 2006.

P. L. Ingram and B. S. Silverman, The new institutionalism in strategic management, 2002.

M. Jensen, Should we stay or should we go? Accountability, status anxiety, and client defections, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.51, issue.1, pp.97-128, 2006.
DOI : 10.2189/asqu.51.1.97

C. Johnson, T. J. Dowd, and C. L. Ridgeway, Legitimacy as a social process, Annual Review of Sociology, pp.53-78, 2006.

C. A. Kallgren, R. R. Reno, and R. B. Cialdini, A focus theory of normative conduct: When norms do and do not affect behavior, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol.26, pp.1002-1012, 2000.

A. A. King and M. J. Lenox, Industry self-regulation without sanctions: the chemical industry's responsible care program, Academy of Management Journal, vol.43, pp.698-716, 2000.

A. A. King, M. J. Lenox, and A. Terlaak, The strategic use of decentralized institutions: exploring certification with the ISO 14001 management standard, Academy of Management Journal, vol.48, pp.1091-1106, 2005.

B. G. King, A Political Mediation Model of Corporate Response to Social Movement Activism, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.53, pp.395-421, 2008.

B. G. King and S. A. Soule, Social Movements as Extra-Institutional Entrepreneurs: The Effect of Protest on Stock Price Returns, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.52, issue.3, pp.413-442, 2007.

C. Komisarjevsky, Trial by media, Business Horizons, vol.26, issue.1, pp.36-43, 1983.
DOI : 10.1016/0007-6813(83)90063-0

J. P. Kotter, Corporate culture and performance, 2008.

M. S. Kraatz and E. J. Zajac, Exploring the limits of the new institutionalism: The causes and consequences of illegitimate organizational change, American sociological review, pp.812-836, 1996.

D. M. Kreps and R. Wilson, Reputation and imperfect information, Journal of economic theory, vol.27, issue.2, pp.253-279, 1982.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-0531(82)90030-8

URL : http://slantchev.ucsd.edu/courses/pdf/kreps-jet1982v27n2.pdf

A. Lamin and S. Zaheer, Wall Street vs. Main Street: Firm Strategies for Defending Legitimacy and Their Impact on Different Stakeholders, Organization Science, vol.23, pp.47-66, 2012.

E. M. Lemert, Social Pathology, 1951.

D. T. Lowry, T. Nio, and D. W. Leitner, Setting the public fear agenda: A longitudinal analysis of network TV crime reporting, public perceptions of crime, and FBI crime statistics, Journal of Communication, vol.53, issue.1, pp.61-73, 2003.

C. Marquis and Z. Huang, Acquisitions as exaptation: The legacy of founding institutions in the US commercial banking industry, Academy of Management Journal, vol.53, issue.6, pp.1441-1473, 2010.

M. E. Mccombs and D. L. Shaw, The agenda-setting function of mass media, Public opinion quarterly, vol.36, issue.2, pp.176-187, 1972.

M. Mccombs, A look at agenda-setting: Past, present and future, Journalism Studies, vol.6, pp.543-557, 2005.

R. K. Merton, The Matthew effect in science, Science, vol.159, issue.3810, pp.56-63, 1968.

J. W. Meyer and B. Rowan, Institutionalized organizations: Formal structure as myth and ceremony, American Journal of Sociology, pp.340-363, 1977.
DOI : 10.1086/226550

J. W. Meyer and W. R. Scott, Organizational environments: Ritual and rationality, 1983.

D. Miller and M. Chen, Nonconformity in competitive repertoires: A sociological view of markets, Social Forces, vol.74, issue.4, pp.1209-1234, 1996.

Y. Mishina, E. S. Block, and M. J. Mannor, The path dependence of organizational reputation: How social judgment influences assessments of capability and character, Strategic Management Journal, vol.33, issue.5, pp.459-477, 2012.

R. Nag, D. C. Hambrick, and M. J. Chen, What is strategic management, really? Inductive derivation of a consensus definition of the field, Strategic management journal, vol.28, issue.9, pp.935-955, 2007.

E. Noelle-neumann, The spiral of silence: Public opinion-Our social skin, 1993.

D. C. North, Institutions, institutional change and economic performance, 1990.

;. Nucini and P. Calciopoli, Udienza del 26 Maggio, Deposizione del teste Nucini Danilo, 2009.

H. O'gorman, The discovery of pluralistic ignorance: An ironic lesson, Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, vol.22, issue.4, pp.333-347, 1986.

W. Ocasio, Towards an attention-based view of the firm, Strategic Management Journal, vol.18, issue.S1, pp.187-206, 1997.

C. Oliver, Strategic responses to institutional processes, vol.16, pp.145-179, 1991.
DOI : 10.2307/258610

C. Oliver, Sustainable competitive advantage: Combining institutional and resource-based views, Strategic management journal, vol.18, issue.9, pp.697-713, 1997.
DOI : 10.1002/(sici)1097-0266(199710)18:9<697::aid-smj909>3.0.co;2-c

URL : http://www.wiley.com/college/man/saloner380717/cases/oliver.pdf

E. Ostrom, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, 1990.

E. Ostrom, Collective action and the evolution of social norms, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol.14, issue.3, pp.137-158, 2000.

M. Pasta and M. Sironi, Juventus, il processo farsa. Inchiesta verita' su Calciopoli, 2007.

M. Peng, L. S. Sunny, P. Brian, and C. Hao, The institution-based view as a third leg for a strategy tripod, The Academy of Management Perspectives, vol.23, issue.3, pp.63-81, 2009.

E. T. Penrose, The theory of the growth of the firm, 1959.

M. D. Pfarrer, T. G. Pollock, and V. P. Rindova, A tale of two assets: The effects of firm reputation and celebrity on earnings surprises and investors' reactions, Academy of Management Journal, vol.53, issue.5, pp.1131-1152, 2010.

J. Pfeffer and G. R. Salancik, The external control of organizations: A resource dependence approach, 1978.

D. Philippe and R. Durand, The impact of norm-conforming behaviors on firm reputation, Strategic management journal, vol.32, issue.9, pp.969-993, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00609203

J. M. Podolny, A status-based model of market competition, American Journal of Sociology, vol.98, issue.4, pp.829-872, 1993.

T. G. Pollock, V. P. Rindova, and P. G. Maggitti, Market watch: Information and availability cascades among the media and investors in the US IPO market, Management Journal, vol.51, issue.2, pp.335-358, 2008.

T. G. Pollock and V. P. Rindova, Media Legitimation Effects in the Market for Initial Public Offerings, Academy of Management Journal, vol.46, issue.5, pp.631-642, 2003.

E. Polman, N. C. Pettit, and B. M. Wiesenfeld, Effects of Wrongdoer Status on Moral Licensing, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2013.

E. G. Pontikes, Two sides of the same coin: How ambiguous classification affects multiple audiences' evaluations, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.57, pp.81-118, 2012.

E. Pontikes, G. Negro, and H. Rao, Stained Red A Study of Stigma by Association to Blacklisted Artists during the "Red Scare, American sociological review, vol.75, issue.3, pp.456-478, 1945.

M. Porter, Towards a dynamic theory of strategy, Strategic management journal, vol.12, issue.S2, pp.95-117, 1980.

, Prioreschi 2012, 30 sul campo-Tutta l'altra verita' su Calciopoli

H. Rao, P. Monin, and R. Durand, Border crossing: Bricolage and the erosion of categorical boundaries in French gastronomy, American Sociological Review, vol.70, pp.968-991, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00457938

A. K. Reichert, M. Lockett, and R. P. Rao, The impact of illegal business practice on shareholder returns, Financial Review, vol.31, issue.1, pp.67-85, 1996.

V. P. Rindova, T. G. Pollock, and M. L. Hayward, Celebrity Firms: the Social Construction of Market Popularity, Academy of Management Review, vol.31, issue.1, pp.50-71, 2006.

C. J. Robertson and W. F. Crittenden, Mapping moral philosophies: Strategic implications for multinational firms, Strategic Management Journal, vol.24, issue.4, pp.385-392, 2003.

G. A. Ronda-pupo and L. Á. Guerras-martin, Dynamics of the evolution of the strategy concept 1962-2008: a co-word analysis, Strategic management journal, vol.33, issue.2, pp.162-188, 2012.

P. Rozin and E. B. Royzman, Negativity bias, negativity dominance, and contagion, Personality and Social Psychology Review, vol.5, pp.296-320, 2001.

M. Ruef and W. R. Scott, A multidimensional model of organizational legitimacy: Hospital survival in changing institutional environments, Administrative Science Quarterly, pp.877-904, 1998.

A. G. Scherer and G. Palazzo, The new political role of business in a globalized world: A review of a new perspective on CSR and its implications for the firm, governance, and democracy, Journal of Management Studies, vol.48, issue.4, pp.899-931, 2011.

. Schulz, Learning, institutionalization, and obsolescence in organizational rule histories, 1993.

W. R. Scott, The adolescence of institutional theory, Administrative Science Quarterly, pp.493-511, 1987.

W. R. Scott, Institutions and organizations: Ideas and interests, 2008.

S. Sen and C. B. Bhattacharya, Does doing good always lead to doing better? Consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility, Journal of marketing Research, pp.225-243, 2001.
DOI : 10.1509/jmkr.38.2.225.18838

M. Sherif, The Psychology of Social Norms, 1936.

E. B. Smith, Identities as lenses: How organizational identity affects audiences' evaluation of organizational performance, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.56, issue.1, pp.61-94, 2011.

M. Spence, Job market signaling, The quarterly journal of Economics, vol.87, issue.3, pp.355-374, 1973.
DOI : 10.2307/1882010

A. L. Stinchcombe, Social structure and organizations' in Handbook of organizations, pp.142-193, 1965.

J. L. Strachan, D. B. Smith, and W. L. Beedles, The price reaction to (alleged) corporate crime, Financial Review, vol.18, issue.2, pp.121-132, 1983.

M. C. Suchman, Managing legitimacy: Strategic and institutional approaches, Academy of Management Review, vol.20, pp.571-610, 1995.
DOI : 10.2307/258788

B. N. Sullivan, P. Haunschild, and K. Page, Organizations non gratae? The impact of unethical corporate acts on interorganizational networks, Organization Science, vol.18, issue.1, pp.55-70, 2007.

J. Surroca, J. A. Tribó, and S. Waddock, Corporate responsibility and financial performance: The role of intangible resources, Strategic Management Journal, vol.31, issue.5, pp.463-490, 2010.

, The Advertising Standards Authority Eight Report, 1971.

, The Advertising Standards Authority First Report, 1964.

, The Advertising Standards Authority Ninth Report, 1972.

, The ASA and the ASBOF/BASBOF-Levy Background and rationale for payment, Levy, vol.217

, Background and rationale for payment

, The UK Code of Non broadcast Advertising, Sales Promotion and Direct Marketing, p.24

W. I. Thomas and D. S. Thomas, The Child in America: Behavior Problems and Programs, vol.1, 2000.

J. B. Thompson, Political scandal: Power and visibility in the media age, 2000.

P. H. Thornton and W. Ocasio, Institutional logics and the historical contingency of power in organizations: Executive succession in the higher education publishing industry, American Journal of Sociology, vol.105, issue.3, pp.801-843, 1958.

M. Tipton, S. Bharadwaj, and D. Robertson, Regulatory exposure of deceptive marketing and its impact on firm value, Journal of Marketing, 2009.

J. Tirole, A theory of collective reputations, Review of Economic Studies, vol.63, pp.1-22, 1996.

, Prefazione, 2012.

B. Uzzi and J. J. Gillespie, Knowledge spillover in corporate financing networks: Embeddedness and the firm's debt performance, Strategic Management Journal, vol.23, issue.7, pp.595-618, 2002.

J. Vergne, Toward a new measure of organizational legitimacy: Method, validation, and illustration, Organizational Research Methods, vol.14, issue.3, pp.484-502, 2011.

J. Vergne, Stigmatized Categories and Public Disapproval of Organizations: A MixedMethods Study of the Global Arms Industry, Academy of Management Journal, vol.55, issue.5, pp.1027-1052, 1996.

J. B. Wade, J. F. Porac, T. G. Pollock, and S. D. Graffin, The burden of celebrity: The impact of CEO certification contests on CEO pay and performance, Academy of Management Journal, vol.49, issue.4, pp.643-660, 2006.

D. M. Waguespack and O. Sorenson, The ratings game: Asymmetry in classification, Organization Science, vol.22, pp.541-553, 2011.

D. E. Warren, Constructive and destructive deviance in organizations, Academy of Management Review, vol.28, issue.4, pp.622-632, 2003.

U. Wassmer and P. Dussauge, Network resource stocks and flows: how do alliance portfolios affect the value of new alliance formations? Strategic management journal, vol.33, pp.871-883, 2012.

J. W. Webb, L. Tihanyi, R. D. Ireland, and D. G. Sirmon, You say illegal, I say legitimate: Entrepreneurship in the informal economy, Academy of Management Review, vol.34, issue.3, pp.492-510, 2009.

M. Weber, Economy and society: An outline of interpretive sociology, 1910.

S. Weeber, An International Perspective on Political Scandals, 2008.
DOI : 10.2139/ssrn.2294030

URL : https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/9393/1/MPRA_paper_9393.pdf

B. Wernerfelt, A resource-based view of the firm, Strategic management journal, vol.5, issue.2, pp.171-180, 1984.

J. D. Westphal and M. K. Bednar, Pluralistic ignorance in corporate boards and firms' strategic persistence in response to low firm performance, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.50, issue.2, pp.262-298, 2005.

J. D. Westphal, S. H. Park, M. L. Mcdonald, and M. L. Hayward, Helping other CEOs avoid bad press social exchange and impression management support among CEOs in communications with journalists, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol.57, issue.2, pp.217-268, 2012.

P. Wier, The costs of antimerger lawsuits: Evidence from the stock market, Journal of Financial Economics, vol.11, issue.1, pp.207-224, 1983.

A. Zavyalova, M. D. Pfarrer, R. K. Reger, and D. L. Shapiro, Managing the message: The effects of firm actions and industry spillovers on media coverage following wrongdoing, Academy of Management Journal, vol.55, issue.5, pp.1079-1101, 2012.

L. G. Zucker, The role of institutionalization in cultural persistence, American sociological review, pp.726-743, 1977.

E. W. Zuckerman, The categorical imperative: Securities analysts and the illegitimacy discount, American Journal of sociology, vol.104, pp.1398-1438, 1999.

E. W. Zuckerman, T. Kim, K. Ukanwa, and J. Von-rittman, Robust Identities or Nonentities? Typecasting in the Feature Film Labor Market, American Journal of sociology, vol.108, pp.1018-1074, 2003.

, Cette thèse est développée à l'intersection entre la théorie de l'organisation et de la recherche stratégique, 1991.

. Durand-;-meyer-et-rowan-;-devers, DiMaggio et Powell, 1983) et des hypothèses et des résultats ont des implications importantes pour les entreprises. La littérature sur la théorie institutionnelle a eu comme cible principalement le évaluations sociales, qui sont des caracteristiques que les acteurs sociaux donnent aux organismes, tels que le statut, la réputation et la légitimité (Deephouse et Suchman, Le cadre théorique est principalement enracinée dans la nouvelle théorie institutionnelle en sociologie, 1977.

. Heugens, Par conséquent, alors que la littérature institutionnelle a examiné longtemps les processus sociologiques qui sous-entendent les évaluations sociales (par exemple, 1968.

. Weber, En conséquence, la littérature sur les évaluations sociales a prospéré ces dernières années. (Deephouse et Suchman, dans les deux dernières décennies, la littérature de stratégie a de plus en plus visée sur la compréhension des implications stratégiques que les évaluations sociales ont pour les entreprises, 1978.

. Graffin, Cependant, il ya encore des défis actuels dans la littérature, qui conduisent à mon écart global de la littérature, 2013.

D. Philippe, La littérature a souvent traité des évaluations sociales d'une manière monolithique, la bonne reputation versus la mauvais, le haut statut contre le bas, ou les organisations légitimes versus les illégitimes. La recherche a récemment reconnu que les évaluations sociales ont de nombreuses dimensions qui peuvent ou ne peuvent pas produire les mêmes effets, 2011.

, Les évaluations sociales ne sont pas indépendantes; ils se chevauchent et interagissent

, Le fait que les chercheurs ont parfois utilisé la même mise à mesurer l'état, la réputation, la légitimité, ou autres constructions, ouvre la question évidente de savoir si ces distinctions sont pratiques ou purement théoriques. Par conséquent, les chercheurs sont en train de comparer deux ou plusieurs évaluations sociales dans la même étude pour comprendre chaque mécanisme unique (Deephouse et Carter, 2005.

. Westphal, Zavyalova et al, 2012), les analystes financiers (Zuckerman, 1999), les critiques (. Durand et al, 2007) ... en outre, ces organisations ont été traités comme si elles avaient un public homogène, tandis que chacun de leurs membres peut avoir des motivations individuelles spécifiques, 1996.

. Le, candidat-(single) public" cadre: Qu'est-ce qui se passe dans un contexte disomogène?

, article de Zuckerman, l'analyse des évaluations sociales sont habituellement menées, explicitement ou implicitement, dans un cadre candidat-public: le candidat, généralement un organisme, prend des mesures qui affectent le jugement, l'évaluation ou le Lacunes de la recherche Pour répondre à cette question, je pense à trois groupes distincts qui affectent directement ou indirectement la survie d'une organisation ou ses performances: les personnes (citoyens), 1999.

, Les gens, dans le rôle de consommateurs, d'employés et de citoyens, représente un publique cruciale pour les entreprises. Cependant, l'opinion du peuple a été largement négligée dans la littérature sur la légitimité et sur la mauvais organisation sociale ou a été assimilée à l'opinion des médias ou d'autres organisations (Deephouse, L'impact d'une mauvaise conduite sociale sur les personnes, 1996.

, Lacune de la recherche 1: Pourquoi les gens réagissent à une mauvais organisation sociale dans une façon plus ou moins importante? 2. L'impact d'une mauvaise conduite sociale sur les investisseurs

. Greve, Il est différent pour une personne de faire une réclamation relativement sans cout ou prendre une décision qui affecte de manière significative ses finances, comme la vente ou l'achat d'actions. Il y a une vaste littérature qui a analysé la réaction des investisseurs aux nouvelles d'une mauvaise conduite ; des études antérieures se sont focalisé principalement sur les actions illégales

, les coûts d'une mauvaise conduite sociale sont intrinsèquement différentes Pourquoi un public change son évaluation après une mauvaise conduit sociale d'une organization?