Dynamique de plages sableuses enclavées à la pointe Bretagne

Abstract : In this thesis, waves and neap-spring tide action on sandy embayed beaches constrained by rocky headlands is studied. A complementary approach combining numerical modeling and in situ measurements is used. Two deterministic model based on major physical processes (hydrodynamics, hydro-sedimentary and morphodynamics) present in the coastal zone and averaged over the water height (2DH) have been selected. XBeach (Roelvink et al., 2009) employs a finite difference scheme and incorporates some specific processes such as a roller, wave groups and the associated bound long wave and a undertow. TELEMAC (Hervouet, 2007) is a finite element scheme. Nearby sandy embayed beaches of La Palue and Lostmarc'h (Crozon Peninsula, Finistère) have been chosen for their complex bathymetry (rip channels, tombolo) and geometry (headlands, small island). One year of in situ measurements (topographical surveys, ADV velocimeters) between septembre 2014 and september 2015 has been undertaken, with different waves and tide climates.Firstly, the overall dynamics of embayed beaches built schematically in the form of a rectangular indentation has been caught. Especially, subtidal sandbar formation under the influence of waves, neap-spring tide and rocky headlands has been studied through several sets of numerical simulations.Secondly, hydrodynamic modelling on the embayed beaches of La Palue and Lostmarc'h has been made with the aim of study influence of waves characteristics (height, period and direction) and indentation's ones (headlands length, spacing between headlands, headlands inclination) on the prediction of currents. A simulation using finite element scheme (TELEMAC) has been achieved and compared to those using finite difference scheme (XBeach). XBeach currents predictions at two locations on the beaches of La Palue and Lostmarc'h over the period from the 21st January 2015 to the 23rd January 2015 have been compared to in situ measurements to validate the model. Whereupon, a numerical hydro-sedimentary simulation (using XBeach) over a full lunation from the 1st September 2015 to the 29th September 2015 has been undertaken on these two beaches, with the aim of study the intensity and direction of sediment flux (instantaneous and residual) for various waves and tide climates and for different morphological areas. This work has helped to highlight the dynamics features of embayed beaches compared to open beaches ones, such as headland sand bypassing, but also similarities. Moreover, XBeach morphodynamics predictions have been compared to in situ measurements for different model setup.Thirdly, after an in-depth statistical analysis of wave climates over a 7 year period offshore of La Palue and Lostmarc'h beaches, the morphodynamic impact of extreme storm waves (ten-yearly and fifty-yearly) combined to a sea level rise induced by climatic change on a cross-shore bottom profile south of La Palue has been estimated through a numerical study (using XBeach)
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Victor Quilfen. Dynamique de plages sableuses enclavées à la pointe Bretagne. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris-Est, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PESC1146⟩. ⟨tel-01557966⟩

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