LA PRODUCTIVITÉ FORESTIÈRE DANS UN ENVIRONNEMENT CHANGEANT : CARACTÉRISATION MULTI-ÉCHELLE DE SES VARIATIONS RÉCENTES À PARTIR DES DONNÉES DE L’INVENTAIRE FORESTIER NATIONAL (IFN) ET INTERPRÉTATION ENVIRONNEMENTALE

Abstract : Growth trends have been reported in many regions of Europe over the twentieth century. However, an integrated assessment of productivity changes, including focus on a wide geographical scale, analysis of spatial heterogeneity, and the inter-specific diversity of growth responses is still lacking. The aim of this Ph.D work was to assess recent changes in forest productivity on a national, regional and local scale in France, and to investigate their potential environmental causes, based on statistical modeling approaches of stand basal area increment (BAI), and environmental indicators. We used the French NFI data for 8 species of contrasted ecological niches and distributions (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, Quercus petraea, Quercus pubescens, Picea abies, Abies alba, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis), taken in pure and even-aged stands. We identified the main factors influencing tree species productivity on a national scale, and produced productivity maps suggesting that species distribution ranges are not always limited by environmental conditions. Between 1980 and 2005, the productivity trends reported were positive, modal or non-significant for all species, except the two Mediterranean species for which productivity decreased, highlighting inter-specific differences in these changes. We observed strong variations of productivity changes, both in intensity and sign, on a regional and intra-regional scale. These results question the relevance of wide-scale average assessments and highlight their context-dependence. The role of recent climatic warming in featuring the BAI trends was highlighted. This work provides an enriched scale- and species-dependent assessment of tree species reaction to a changing environment. We emphasized the species- and context dependence of productivity changes, due to differences in species autecology and spatial variations in the limiting factors. Further focus on the effect of environmental factors and their complex interactions is needed for the prediction of species future productivity.
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Marie Charru. LA PRODUCTIVITÉ FORESTIÈRE DANS UN ENVIRONNEMENT CHANGEANT : CARACTÉRISATION MULTI-ÉCHELLE DE SES VARIATIONS RÉCENTES À PARTIR DES DONNÉES DE L’INVENTAIRE FORESTIER NATIONAL (IFN) ET INTERPRÉTATION ENVIRONNEMENTALE. Sylviculture, foresterie. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0027⟩. ⟨tel-01578567⟩

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