Dynamique de polluants émergents (parabènes, triclosan et triclocarban) dans le continuum eaux grises - milieu récepteur.

Abstract : This Phd thesis is part of both the Cosmet’Eau project and the OPUR programme. It provides new insights into the dynamics of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban in urban areas under strong human pressure. These molecules are biocides commonly used as preservatives in a wide range of consumer products, such as cosmetics, food and pharmaceutical products, textiles and cleaning products. Despite their toxicity, these molecules are not subject to any regulatory monitoring in the environment. Also, this work deals with the dynamics of these micropollutants in urban areas: from their sources (namely gray water and sewage) to the receiving environment (upstream-downstream of the Parisian conurbation with punctual and passive sampling) along with their behavior at different stages of a wastewater treatment plant.At the source level, five types of greywater from shower, washbasin, washing machine, dishwasher and manual dish washing were considered. Significant variability in concentrations within each greywater and between different types of greywater was observed. This variability reflects the consumption practices of the different volunteers. Besides, the waters from washing machines and showers are the most contaminated. For parabens, clothes are the main source of contamination of washing machine waters, while in shower waters, people and personal care products are the main sources of contamination.Since 2010, per capita daily flows of these molecules have decreased significantly (by a factor between 2 and 7 depending on the molecule). This decrease can be explained by (i) changes in the formulation of cosmetic products and (ii) the emergence of new, more restrictive regulations. The monitoring of the fate in wastewater treatment plant (Seine Centre), at the scale of the device, showed that primary treatment (lamellar physico-chemical decantation) allows a quasi-total removal of triclosan, while parabens are predominantly eliminated during the biofiltration, at the level of the first stage (Biofor). The general use of a tertiary treatment (like Carboplus®, studied during this work) would reduce discharges to receiving waters of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban.Urban discharges during wet weather period (here combined sewer overfows) constitute a major source of contamination for the receiving waters with respect to the measured levels. The combination of sewage treatment plant discharges, during dry and wet weather periods, and combined sewer overfows contributes to increasing levels of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban in the Seine River, as the monitoring of two sites, upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation, has highlighted it. Passive samplers are promising tools for determining the bioavailable fraction of TCS and TCC. Indeed, the method developed within the framework of the Cosmet'eau project has been successfully applied to the Seine
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Sifax Zedek. Dynamique de polluants émergents (parabènes, triclosan et triclocarban) dans le continuum eaux grises - milieu récepteur.. Chimie analytique. Université Paris-Est, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PESC1167⟩. ⟨tel-01617500⟩

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