The role of environmental factors on trace-metalconcentrations in urban lakes - Lake Pampulha, Lake Créteil and 49 lakes in the Ile-de-France region

Abstract : Lakes have a particular influence on the water cycle in urban catchments. Thermal stratification and a longer water residence time in the lake boost the phytoplankton production. Most metals are naturally found in the environment in trace amounts. Trace metals are essential to growth and reproduction of organisms. However, some are also well known for their toxic effects on animals and humans. Total metal concentrations do not reflect their ecotoxicity that depends on their properties and speciation (particulate, dissolved: labile or bioavailable and inert fractions). Trace metals can be adsorbed to various components in aquatic systems including inorganic and organic ligands. The ability of metal binding to dissolved organic matter (DOM), in particular humic substances, has been largely studied. In urban lakes, the phytoplankton development can produce autochthonous DOM, non humic substances that can have the ability of metal binding.. But there are few studies about trace metal speciation in lake water column.The main objectives of this thesis are (1) to obtain a consistent database of trace metal concentrations in the water column of representative urban lakes; (2) to access their bioavailability through an adapted speciation technique; (3) to analyze the seasonal and spatial evolution of the metals and their speciation; (4) to study the potential impact of environmental variables, particularly of dissolved organic matter related to phytoplankton production on metal bioavailability and (5) to link the metal concentrations to the land use in the lake watershed.Our methodology is based on a dense field survey of the water bodies in addition to specific laboratory analysis. The research has been conducted on three study sites: Lake Créteil (France), Lake Pampulha (Brazil) and a panel of 49 peri-urban lakes (Ile de France). Lake Créteil is an urban lake impacted by anthropogenic pollution. It benefits of a large number of monitoring equipment, which allowed us to collect a part of the data set. In Lake Pampulha catchment, the anthropogenic pressure is high. Lake Pampulha has to face with many pollution point and non-point sources. The climate and limnological characteristics of the lakes are also very different. The panel of 49 lakes of Ile de France was sampled once during three successive summers (2011-2013); they provided us with a synoptic, representative data set of the regional metal contamination in a densely anthropized region.In order to explain the role of the environmental variables on the metal concentrations, we applied the Random Forest model on the Lake Pampulha dataset and on the 49 urban lake dataset with 2 specific objectives: (1) in Lake Pampulha, understanding the role of environmental variables on the trace metal labile concentration, considered as potentially bioavailable and (2) in the 49 lakes, understanding the relationship of the environmental variables, more particularly the watershed variables, on the dissolved metal concentrations. The analysis of the relationships between the trace metal speciation and the environmental variables provided the following key results of this thesis.In Lake Pampulha, around 80% of the variance of the labile cobalt is explained by some limnological variables: Chl a, O2, pH, and total phosphorus. For the other metals, the RF model did not succeed in explaining more than 50% of the relationships between the metals and the limnological variables.In the 49 urban lakes in Ile de France, the RF model gave a good result for Co (66% of explained variance) and very satisfying for Ni (86% of explained variance). For Ni, the best explanatory variables are landuse variables such as “activities” (facilities for water, sanitation and energy, logistical warehouses, shops, office…) and “landfill”. This result fits with Lake Creteil where dissolved Ni concentration is particularly high and where the “activities” and “landfill” landuse categories are the highest
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Viet Tran Khac. The role of environmental factors on trace-metalconcentrations in urban lakes - Lake Pampulha, Lake Créteil and 49 lakes in the Ile-de-France region. Hydrology. Université Paris-Est, 2016. English. ⟨NNT : 2016PESC1160⟩. ⟨tel-01617782⟩

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