Modélisation distribuée à base physique du transfert hydrologique des polluants routiers de l’échelle locale à l’échelle du quartier

Abstract : Nowadays, the increasing use of separate stormwater systems causes a frequent transport of urban pollutants into receiving water bodies (lakes, rivers). However, current studies still lack of the knowledge of urban build-up and wash-off processes. In order to address urban management issues, better understanding of physical mechanism is required not only for the urban surfaces, but also for the sewer systems. In this context, the modelling of hydrological transfer of urban pollutants can be a valuable tool.This thesis aims to develop and assess the physically-based and distributed models to simulate the transport of traffic-related pollutants (suspended solids, hydrocarbons, heavy metals) in urban stormwater runoffs. This work is part of the ANR "Trafipollu" project, and benefit from the experimental results for model calibration and validation. The modelling is performed at two scales of the urban environment: at the local scale and at the city district scale.At the local scale of urban environment, the code FullSWOF (second-order finite volume scheme) coupled with Hairsine and Rose model (1992a; 1992b) and detailed monitoring surveys is used to evaluate urban wash-off process. Simulations over different rainfall events represent promising results in reproducing the various dynamics of water flows and particle transfer on the urban surfaces. Spatial analysis of wash-off process reveals that the rainfall-driven impacts are two orders of magnitude higher than flow-drive effects. These findings contribute to a significant improvement in the field of urban wash-off modelling. The application of soil erosion model to the urban context is also an important innovation.At the city district scale, the second step consists of coupling the TREX model (Velleux, England, et al., 2008) and the CANOE model, named "TRENOE" platform. By altering different options of model configurations, the adequate numerical precision and the detailed information of landuse data are identified as the crucial elements for achieving acceptable simulations. Contrarily, the high-resolution topographic data and the common variations of the water flow parameters are not equally significant at the scale of a small urban catchment. Moreover, this coupling showed fundamental problems of the model structure such as the numerical scheme of the overland flow (only 4 directions), and the empirical USLE equations need to be completed by raindrop detachment process.To address these shortcomings, the LISEM - SWMM platform is developed by coupling the open-source LISEM model (De Roo, Wesseling, et al., 1996), which is initially developed for soil erosion simulations, and the SWMM model (Rossman, 2010). For the first time, the hydrological model is also supported by the simulations of atmospheric dry deposits of fine particles (PM10), hydrocarbons and heavy metals. The performance of water flow and TSS simulations are satisfying with the calibrated parameters. Considering the hydrocarbons and heavy metals contents of different particle size classes, simulated event mean concentration of each pollutant is comparable to local in-situ measurements. Although the platform at current stage still needs improvements in order to adapt to the operational applications, the present modelling approach contributes to an innovative technology in the field of modelling of hydrological transfer of the traffic-related pollutants in urban environment
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Yi Hong. Modélisation distribuée à base physique du transfert hydrologique des polluants routiers de l’échelle locale à l’échelle du quartier. Hydrologie. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC1106⟩. ⟨tel-01619596⟩

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