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Modélisation des particules : Participation à Eurodelta et étude au voisinage d'une raffinerie

Abstract : Eulerian Chemical-Transport Models (CTM) simulate the formation of atmospheric pollutants in gridded domain with horizontal resolutions that are usually of the order of several kilometers. Industrial plumes emitted from elevated stacks with initial dimensions of a few meters are, therefore, artificially diluted in those grid cells, thereby deteriorating the representation of their potential impact on local air quality. A Plume-in-Grid modeling approach may be used to improve the representation of industrial plumes. The Polyphemus Plume-in-Grid model treats point source emissions with a Gaussian puff model, dynamically interacting with an Eulerian model. This approach allows one to model air quality at several scales (regional to continental) while ensuring a good representation of industrial plumes from local to continental scales.In this thesis, the Polyphemus Plume-in-Grid model has been improved by integrating a finer representation of the particle size distribution. Several studies were also conducted in order to further the model performance evaluation at various scales. This thesis consists of two main parts.The first part covers the evaluation of the Polyphemus Eulerian model at the continental scale, in the context of the Eurodelta model intercomparison project. The current phase of Eurodelta consists in studying pollution trends at the European scale over the past two decades and the sensitivity of those trends to meteorology, European emissions, and extra-European emissions (represented in the models by the boundary conditions). In this context, the performance statistics of the Polyphemus Eulerian model are evaluated in comparison to seven other CTM. This thesis focuses principally on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) modeling, and their sensitivity to various parameterizations used in the participating CTM.The second part presents applications of the Polyphemus Plume-in-Grid modelto different field measurement campaigns. The first campaign focuses on the month of April 2013, in the vicinity of the Total refinery of Grandpuits, Seine-et-Marne. Model performance is evaluated at the regional scale, with the refinery sources treated with the Plume-in-Grid representation. The refinery contribution to local respirable particle concentrations, in interaction with local sources, is analyzed. Next, the model is applied to two measurement campaigns of the TEMMAS project (“TEledetection, Measure, Modeling of Atmospheric pollutants on industrial sites”), conducted in the vicinity of the Total refinery at La Mède, Bouches-du-Rhône, in September 2015 and February 2016. The performance of the Polyphemus Plume-in-Grid model is evaluated with intensive measurements of mass concentrations, number concentrations, and chemical composition of particles in the vicinity of the refinery
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Valentin Raffort. Modélisation des particules : Participation à Eurodelta et étude au voisinage d'une raffinerie. Océan, Atmosphère. Université Paris-Est, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017PESC1178⟩. ⟨tel-01625284⟩

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