Mechanisms of action of satiating gut peptides in the regulation of food intake through vagal afferent pathways

Abstract : As the initial interface for nutrient sensing, digestion and absorption, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a critical role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Information that arises from the GI tract is key to normal physiological responses controlling gut function and regulating food intake. Vagal afferent neurons (VAN) are a major pathway by which information about ingested nutrients reaches the central nervous system to influence GI function and food intake behavior. VAN express receptors for many of the regulatory peptides released from the gut that are involved in regulation of food intake and body weight. This dissertation addresses the role of two gut peptides, leptin and glucagon-like peptide-1, acting at the level of VAN, to inhibit food intake. First, the mechanism of action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) on VAN is addressed. GLP-1-induced satiation requires a postprandial state; the data support that feeding changes the localization of GLP-1Rs from the cytoplasm to the neuronal cell membrane. Further, ghrelin and its receptor GHSR1 expressed by VAN is involved in regulating GLP-1 receptor translocation. Second, the importance of leptin receptor expression by VAN in the development of hyperphagia and obesity was demonstrated by selective knockout of the leptin receptor (LepR) in VAN; mice express an obesogenic phenotype. Obesity and its resultant health consequences are a major worldwide health problem. Effective or preventative treatments for obesity are limited. Our findings have filled the gap in our knowledge of the mechanism of GLP-1 and leptin signaling on VAN. Understanding the physiology regulating feeding behavior is imperative in developing non-invasive anti-obesity treatments.
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Charlotte Ronveaux. Mechanisms of action of satiating gut peptides in the regulation of food intake through vagal afferent pathways. Life Sciences [q-bio]. AgroParisTech, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015AGPT0002⟩. ⟨tel-01637706⟩

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