Imagerie quantitative de biopolymères par génération de second harmonique résolue en polarisation.

Abstract : Collagen is a key element of organs architecture in mammals. This protein is organized in tridimensional (3D) structures specific to each tissue and responsible for its biophysical and biomechanical properties. Multiphoton microscopy allows the visualization of unstained fibrillar collagens in biological tissues, by use of their endogenous second harmonic generation (SHG) signals. This work focuses on polarization-resolved SHG measurements (P-SHG), in order to characterize the collagen 3D structure in tissues, from the molecular scale to the macroscopic scale.We first studied the sensitivity and the reliability of those P-SHG measurements, and validated this technique as a quantitative tool to probe collagen structure in intact tissues.In collaboration with the Laboratoire de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, this technique was then applied to the study of collagen model systems with a liquid crystal like organization, in order to find the physico-chemical conditions leading to organizations close to the one observed in cornea.Finally, we introduced SHG circular difference measurements (CD-SHG). This technique allowed us to probe the polarity of collagen fibrils with respect to the image plane. Those measurements complement P-SHG measurements. An experimental implementation of this technique is introduced, as well as preliminary measurements in cornea. We present also preliminary results from CD-SHG/I-SHG correlative imaging, in collaboration with INRS, giving full information about collagen polarity.
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Claire Teulon. Imagerie quantitative de biopolymères par génération de second harmonique résolue en polarisation.. Optique [physics.optics]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016SACLX073⟩. ⟨tel-01647204⟩

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