Analyse de cycle de vie conséquentielle appliquée aux ensembles bâtis

Abstract : Environmental impacts induced by urban projects concern various topics (resources, health, biodiversity). Some are indirect impacts (for instance radioactive waste generated by electricity consumption). This calls for a holistic and multicriteria approach such as Life-Cycle-Analysis (LCA) in order to evaluate environmental performance of construction or retrofitting projects. Considering cradle to grave impacts this method is used at different project phases: program objectives, design aid, management strategies evaluation, retrofitting project, dismantling, and waste management.The thesis lies in the framework of life-cycle analysis applied to urban project design, from individual houses up to multifunctional neighborhoods. The underlying objective is to improve relevance and accuracy of the decision aid provided by LCA-based design tools.Three interacting topics have been investigated:- Consequential assessment: How can the results of current research on consequential LCA be implemented in Building LCA?- Dynamic: How to integrate dynamic interaction between buildings and the background system, mainly the electricity grid?- Prospective: How to take into account the long life span of buildings and urban districts?The dissertation firstly suggests a new framework for evaluating construction or retrofitting project, grounded in consequential LCA. The practical application of this consequential-project approach requires knowledge generation on dynamic and prospective LCA.A dynamic model of the electricity system has been developed. From this model, a reference operation year of the electricity system has been determined, mitigating climatic and economical hazards of real years. Based on this model, a dynamic average approach and a marginal approach are defined to assess life-cycle impacts of electricity consumption. These developments improve the accuracy of LCA independently of the chosen modeling approach, consequential or attributional.The prospective dimension is explored, through scenarios development. The suggested scenarios bring together national energy prospective research and global warming effects on buildings thermal behavior. The combined effects are evaluated using a novel and integrated approach.The thesis then addresses the scale issue when moving from building to district projects. Following the consequential-project approach principles, the focus is made on integrating daily transport and domestic waste models in LCA of urban projects. A method to combine local transport simulation models and building LCA is suggested. It establishes a first step towards integrated multidisciplinary assessment of urban projects.The developed approaches and methodologies are finally tested on a case study.
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Charlotte Roux. Analyse de cycle de vie conséquentielle appliquée aux ensembles bâtis. Construction durable. PSL Research University, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PSLEM043⟩. ⟨tel-01647882⟩

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