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Etude des erreurs programmées du ribosome par microscopie de fluorescence en molécule unique

Nathalie Barbier 1 
1 Laboratoire Charles Fabry / Biophotonique
LCF - Laboratoire Charles Fabry
Abstract : The synthesis of proteins is a central mechanism of cellular life whose understandingis an issue for biomedical research. Phenomena such as programmed errors of eukaryotic translation orinitiation by viral IRES structures are involved in virus and bacterial replication processes. A Betterunderstanding of these processes is an essential step towards the development of innovative therapeuticapproaches.Single molecule studies allow each reaction system to be observed individually and give accessto asynchronous events, such as protein translation, that are difficult to observe in overall measurements.This phD manuscript presents a single molecule approach to study translation by a eukaryotic(mammalian) ribosome.We observe the translational systems thanks to fluorescent primers linked to oligonucleotides thatare hybridized to the translated mRNA sequences. These markers are observed by Total InternalReflection Fuorescence Microscopy (TIRFM) ; with the mRNAs attached to the sample surface. Whilereading the mRNA, the ribosome detaches the primers, and their instants of departure give us access tothe translation dynamics of individual ribosomes. This method makes it possible to obtain statisticalkinetic data on a large number of parallel translational systems, which can then be fitted by probabilitylaws. On the basis of this principle, my phD work aimed at extending our experiments to a newbiological issue : the study of non-canonical events in eukaryotic translation. To this end, we havemade the modifications and optimizations necessary for the set-up and the experimental protocol toadapt them to these new challenges.Our measurements of the in vitro kinetics of eukaryotic elongation have revealed a delay due tonon-canonical initiation. Indeed, the ribosome are recruited on the mRNA thanks to a viral, IREStype structure. Under our experimental conditions, the incorporation of an amino acid takes aboutone second while this structure induces a translation delay of several tens of seconds. We carried outa comparative study of several of these viral structures and showed that the measured delay was acharacteristic preserved in the framework of the non-canonical initiation. This result opens up prospectsfor kinetic studies both to deepen our conclusions on IRES and to address other non-canonical eventssuch as programmed frameshifting or STOP codon readthrough.
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Submitted on : Monday, December 4, 2017 - 9:12:32 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01654479, version 1


Nathalie Barbier. Etude des erreurs programmées du ribosome par microscopie de fluorescence en molécule unique. Optique [physics.optics]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLO005⟩. ⟨tel-01654479⟩



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