Méthodes numériques pour la simulation d'équations aux dérivées partielles stochastiques non-linéaires en condensation de Bose-Einstein

Abstract : This thesis is devoted to the numerical study of two stochastic models arising in Bose-Einstein condensation physics. They constitute two generalisations of the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation. This deterministic partial differential equation model the wave function dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in an external confining potential. The first chapter contains a simple presentation of the Bose-Einstein condensation phenomenon and of the experimental methods used to construct such systems.The first model considered enables to model the fluctuations of the confining potential intensity, and takes the form of a stochastic partial differential equation. In practice, these fluctuations lead to heating of the condensate and possibly to its collapse. In the second chapter we propose to build a numerical scheme to solve this model. It is based on a spectral space discretisation and a Crank-Nicolson discretisation in space. We show that the proposed scheme converges strongly at order at least one in probability. We also present numerical simulations to illustrate this result. The third chapter is devoted to the numerical and theoretical study of the dynamics of a stationary solution (for the deterministic equation) of vortex type. We study the influence of random disturbances of the confining potential on the solution. We show that the disturbed solution conserves the symmetries of the stationary solution for times up to at least the square of the inverse of the fluctuations intensity. These results are illustrated with numerical simulations based on a Monte-Carlo method suited to rare events estimation.The second model can be used to model the effects of the temperature on the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate. In the case of finite temperature, the Bose-Einstein condensation is not complete and the condensate interacts with the non-condensed particles. These interactions are interesting to understand the dynamics of the phase transition and analyse the phenomena of symmetry breaking associated, like the spontaneous nucleation of vortices We have studied in the fourth and the fifth chapters some questions linked to the long time simulation of this model solutions. The fourth chapter is devoted to the construction of an unbiased sampling method of measures known up to a multiplicative constant. The distinctive feature of this Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo algorithm is that it enables to perform an unbiased non-reversible sampling based on an overdamped Langevin equation. It constitutes a generalization of the Metropolis-Adjusted Langevin Algorithm (MALA). The fifth chapter is devoted to the numerical study of metastable dynamics linked to the nucleation of vortices in rotating Bose-Einstein condensates. A numerical integrator and a suited Monte-Carlo methods for the simulation of metastable dynamics are proposed. This Monte-Carlo method is based on the Adaptive Multilevel Splitting (AMS) algorithm.
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Romain Poncet. Méthodes numériques pour la simulation d'équations aux dérivées partielles stochastiques non-linéaires en condensation de Bose-Einstein. Analyse numérique [cs.NA]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLX069⟩. ⟨tel-01663064⟩

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