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Co-conception des systemes optiques avec masques de phase pour l'augmentation de la profondeur du champ : evaluation du performance et contribution de la super-résolution

Rafael Falcon Maimone 1
1 Laboratoire Charles Fabry / Spim
LCF - Laboratoire Charles Fabry
Abstract : Phase masks are wavefront encoding devices typically situated at the aperture stop of an optical system to engineer its point spread function (PSF) in a technique commonly known as wavefront coding. These masks can be used to extend the depth of field (DoF) of imaging systems without reducing the light throughput by producing a PSF that becomes more invariant to defocus; however, the larger the DoF the more blurred the acquired raw image so that deconvolution has to be applied on the captured images. Thus, the design of the phase masks has to take into account image processing in order to reach the optimal compromise between invariance of PSF to defocus and capacity to deconvolve the image. This joint design approach has been introduced by Cathey and Dowski in 1995 and refined in 2002 for continuous-phase DoF enhancing masks and generalized by Robinson and Stork in 2007 to correct other optical aberrations.In this thesis we study the different aspects of phase mask optimization for DoF extension, such as the different performance criteria and the relation of these criteria with the different mask parameters. We use the so-called image quality (IQ), a mean-square error based criterion defined by Diaz et al., to co-design different phase masks and evaluate their performance. We then compare the relevance of the IQ criterion against other optical design metrics, such as the Strehl ratio, the modulation transfer function (MTF) and others. We focus in particular on the binary annular phase masks, their performance for various conditions, such as the desired DoF range, the number of optimization parameters, presence of aberrations and others.We use then the analysis tools used for the binary phase masks for continuous-phase masks that appear commonly in the literature, such as the polynomial-phase masks. We extensively compare these masks to each other and the binary masks, not only to assess their benefits, but also because by analyzing their differences we can understand their properties.Phase masks function as a low-pass filter on diffraction limited systems, effectively reducing aliasing. On the other hand, the signal processing technique known as superresolution uses several aliased frames of the same scene to enhance the resolution of the final image beyond the sampling resolution of the original optical system. Practical examples come from the works made during a secondment with the industrial partner KLA-Tencor in Leuven, Belgium. At the end of the manuscript we study the relevance of using such a technique alongside phase masks for DoF extension.
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Rafael Falcon Maimone. Co-conception des systemes optiques avec masques de phase pour l'augmentation de la profondeur du champ : evaluation du performance et contribution de la super-résolution. Optique [physics.optics]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLO006⟩. ⟨tel-01687374⟩

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