Investigations in Computer-Aided Mathematics : Experimentation, Computation, and Certification

Abstract : This thesis proposes three contributions to computer-aidedmathematical proofs. It deals, not only with proofs relying oncomputations, but also with formal proofs, which are both produced andverified using a piece of software called a proof assistant.In the first part, we illustrate the theme of experimentation at theservice of proofs by considering the problem of the complexity ofmatrix multiplication algorithms. This problem has historically beenapproached in an increasingly abstract way: modern approaches do notconstruct algorithms but use theoretical results to improve the lowerbound on the famous omega constant. We went back to a more practicalapproach by attempting to program some of the algorithms implied bythese theoretical results. This experimental approach reveals anunexpected pattern in some existing algorithms. While these algorithmscontain a new variable epsilon whose presence is reputed to renderthem inefficient for the purposes of reasonable matrix sizes, we havediscovered that we could build matrix multiplication algorithms inparallel without epsilon's with an asymptotic complexity which cantheoretically beat Strassen's algorithm in terms of the number ofmultiplications. A by-product of this exploration is a symbolic toolin Ocaml which can analyze, compose and export matrix multiplicationalgorithms. We also believe that it could be used to build newpractical algorithms for matrix multiplication.In the second part, we describe a formal proof of the irrationality ofthe constant zeta (3), following the historical demonstration due toApéry. The crucial step of this proof is to establish that twosequences of rational numbers satisfy a suprising commonrecurrence. It is in fact possible to "discover" this recurrence usingsymbolic algorithms, and their existing implementations in a computeralgebra system. In fact, this work is an example of a skepticalapproach to the formal proof of theorems, in which computations aremainly accomplished by an efficient computer algebra program, and thenformally verified in a proof assistant. Incidentally, this workquestions the value of creative telescoping certificates as completeproofs of identities. This formal proof is also based on newmathematical libraries, which were formalised for its needs. Inparticular, we have formalized and simplified a study of theasymptotic behaviour of the sequence lcm(1,..., n). This work isdeveloped in the Coq proof assistant and extends the MathematicalComponents libraries.In the last part, we present a procedure which computes approximationsof a class of proper and improper integrals while simultaneouslyproducing a Coq formal proof of the correction of the result of thiscomputation. This procedure uses a combination of interval arithmeticand rigorous polynomial approximations of functions. This work makescrucial use of the possibility to efficiently compute inside Coq'slogic. It is an extension of the CoqInterval library providingnumerical approximation of a class of real expressions. Itsimplementation has also resulted in extensions to the Coquelicotlibrary for real analysis, including a better treatment of improperintegrals. We illustrate the value of this tool and its performanceby dealing with standard but nontrivial examples from the literature,on which other tools have in some cases been incorrect.
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Thomas Sibut Pinote. Investigations in Computer-Aided Mathematics : Experimentation, Computation, and Certification. Computation and Language [cs.CL]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2017. English. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLX086⟩. ⟨tel-01691185⟩

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