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Imagerie polarimétrique active à large spectre pour l’amélioration du contraste et la microscopie.

Lijo Thomas 1 
1 Laboratoire Charles Fabry / Spim
LCF - Laboratoire Charles Fabry
Abstract : Polarization imaging is a technique which reveals contrasts that do not appear in classical intensity images. It transforms the difference in polarimetric properties of a scene into difference in gray level of an image. This technique has found applications in decamouflaging, remote sensing, microscopy etc. Polarimetric imagers often use polarization modulation devices based on liquid crystal variable retarders (LCVR), which are fast and reliable. However, LCVR control the polarization state of light only at one given nominal wavelength, and performance loss might be observed if imaging is performed at other wavelengths, due to the wavelength dependence of the LCVR. If the light source that illuminates the scene has a broad spectrum, it is thus necessary to insert a narrowband spectral filter in the imaging path. However, spectral filtering significantly decreases the amount of light entering the system and thus the signal-to-noise ratio of polarimetric images.A way to circumvent this issue is to achromatize the polarization modulators. However, this comes at the price of higher complexity and cost, and this may not be needed if the objective is to improve target detection performance by increasing the target/background discriminability (or contrast). In the thesis, we present the investigation of the impact of broadening the spectrum of the light entering the system on the discriminability performance of active polarimetric systems. Through simulations, we show that broadening the bandwidth of the illumination can increase the contrast between two regions, as the increase of light flux compensates for the loss of polarimetric precision. Moreover, we show that taking into account the chromatic characteristics of the components of the imaging system, it is possible to further enhance the contrast. We validate these findings through experiments in active polarimetric imaging configuration, and demonstrate that the spectral bandwidth can be considered as an additional parameter to optimize polarimetric imaging set-ups.We collaborated with an industrial partner (Carl Zeiss, Germany) to implement polarization imaging in optical microscopy. Imaging thin and transparent specimen in microscopy is a challenging task. Staining the sample is a solution but it adds false/spurious details to the image, thus not suitable for live imaging. Recently, differential phase contrast (DPC) imaging by asymmetric illumination is proved to be a desirable choice. This works on the principle that the phase gradient of a transparent specimen can be extracted from two images, illuminated and recorded at complementary angles. Then, DPC is computed as normalized difference between two images. Here the light source is programmable LED array and different pattern of illumination can be generated. This imaging method consumes more time and intermittent flash of light from light source makes sample observation inconvenient for the observer.A practical solution we propose is to install two polarization foils with orthogonal polarization axes below the light source side by side and a polarization sensitive camera which can detect orthogonal eigen polarization states at a time in the existing setup. The polarization foils separate light waves from complementary angles since orthogonally polarized light waves do not interact with each other. The polarized light reaches polarization sensitive camera after passing through transparent sample. The pixels sensitive to horizontal and vertical polarization detect horizontal and vertical polarized light respectively. Then horizontal and vertical polarized light information are separated from the recorded image and reconstructed the missing information using debayering process. Through experiments, we show that polarization based DPC and standard DPC images have similar quality in most cases and the new technique reduces time consumption by half.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, January 30, 2018 - 2:27:06 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, June 25, 2022 - 10:28:57 PM
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Lijo Thomas. Imagerie polarimétrique active à large spectre pour l’amélioration du contraste et la microscopie.. Optique [physics.optics]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLO008⟩. ⟨tel-01696496⟩



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